Pictures
(click to enlarge)
Type Description Blade
Length
Overall
Length

Muzzle
Ring
Diameter

Markings
      in. mm. in. mm. in. mm.  
Carter EB 9

Ottobre #2302

Turkish-shortened German ersatz bayonet.

Distinguishing characteristics include: a pressed steel grip; flattened pommel butt with a blunt nose and contoured finger edge; stepped one-piece crossguard with two-stage muzzle ears; fullered, German-made blade, shortened.

The scabbard retains a German-style teardrop frog stud, rather than the more typical oval frog stud.

The two-step muzzle ring allows fitment on both the 8 mm. Mauser Gewehr 98 and earlier 8 mm. M1888 Commission Rifle. The muzzle-ring diameter listed is for the upper step. Lower step diameter is 0.545 in. (13.8 mm.).

9.75
248
14.625
371
.690
17.5
Crosspiece: "9064"
Carter EB 9

Ottobre #23021

Turkish-shortened German ersatz bayonet.

Distinguishing characteristics include: a pressed steel grip; Flattened pommel butt with blunt nose and contoured finger edge; stepped one-piece crossguard with two-stage muzzle ears; fullered, German-made blade, shortened; and, original crossguard with muzzle ears removed.

Scabbard has a typical Turkish oval frog stud.

Absence of muzzle ears limits this example to use only with the 8 mm. Mauser Gewehr 98.

9.75 248 14.625 371 n/a None.

 

Carter EB 22

Ottobre #1313

Unmodified German ersatz bayonet.

Distinguishing characteristics include: a cast brass grip; thin false crosspiece beginning in the center of the hilt; sharp pommel beak; raised reverse lug catch aperture, and single-stage muzzle ears.

It has long been believed that single-stage muzzle ears allow mounting only to the 8 mm. Mauser Gewehr 98. However, this is not always the case. Some of what appear to be single-stage muzzle ears are actually a simplified oval that allows mounting to both the Gewehr 88 and Gewehr 98. This bayonet is such an example, as these images of it mounted to a Gewehr 88 attest. Credit for this discovery goes to Dennis 'Otto' Ottobre, whose research on Turkish bayonets has made him a leading authority on Ersatz bayonets.

The scabbard is of the fourth type documented by Carter and still has some traces of the original feldgrau (field gray) paint.

Brass was in short supply and was too soft to hold up in field use, so very few of these bayonets were made and survived the War.

12.125 308 17.125 435 .680 17.3 Blade Spine: Fraktur proofmark
Carter EB 28

Ottobre #25441

Turkish-shortened German ersatz bayonet.

Distinguishing characteristics include: a pressed steel hilt with crosswise clean-out hole; large pommel beak; unfullered, German-made blade, shortened; and two-piece brazed crosspiece. Original muzzle ears enabling use with the Gewehr 88 Commission Rifle were removed, allowing use only with the 8 mm. Mauser Gewehr 98.

Scabbard has a typical Turkish oval frog stud.

9.875 251 14.625 371 n/a None.
Carter EB 34

Ottobre #26021

Turkish-shortened German ersatz bayonet.

Distinguishing characteristics include: one-piece pressed hilt folded downward over the tang and pommel block; rounded pommel beak; unfullered, German-made blade, shortened; and, one piece stamped crosspiece with two-stage muzzle ears cocked rearward.

Although the trademark is no longer visible, the scabbard is a shortened pressed steel ersatz type made by the firm of Friedrich August Göbel, in Solingen.

The two-step muzzle ring allows fitment on both the 8 mm. Mauser Gewehr 98 and earlier 8 mm. M1888 Commission Rifle. The muzzle-ring diameter listed is for the upper step. Lower step diameter is 0.545 in. (13.8 mm.).

9.625 244 14.625 371 .690 17.5 Spine: Fraktur proofmark

Crosspiece: "4327"

Carter EB 48

Ottobre #33021

Turkish-shortened German ersatz bayonet.

Distinguishing characteristics include: stamped smooth steel grips with an irregularly shaped depressed groove in each side; the grips are affixed over the tang by three dome-headed rivets; rounded pommel beak; unfullered, German-made blade, shortened; and stamped crosspiece with a rearward swept quillion. Original muzzle ears enabling use with the Gewehr 88 Commission Rifle were removed, allowing use only with the 8 mm. Mauser Gewehr 98.

Scabbard has a typical Turkish oval frog stud.

9.875 251 14.50 368 n/a Crosspiece: "344?7"

Grip: "4560"

Blade: Fraktur proofmark

Thumbnail image of German-altered French M1874 Gras bayonet, designated EB116 by CarterThumbnail image of German-altered French M1874 Gras bayonet, designated EB116 by CarterThumbnail image of German-altered French M1874 Gras bayonet, designated EB116 by CarterThumbnail image of German-altered French M1874 Gras bayonet, designated EB116 by CarterThumbnail image of German-altered French M1874 Gras bayonet, designated EB116 by CarterThumbnail image of German-altered French M1874 Gras bayonet, designated EB116 by Carter Carter EB 116 German Ersatz variant of the T-back French M1874 sword bayonet.

These were altered by Germany during the First World War for use with the 8 mm. M1888 Commission Rifle. The late Anthony Carter classified this Ersatz type as EB 116 in his writings.

Alterations include milling of the M1874's distinctive brass pommel hump flat, milling away the muzzle ring adjustment screw, and milling away part of the muzzle ring to provide the added length needed to accommodate the M1888 barrel jacket. These alterations are shown in this comparison image.

All of the original French markings are present. No German markings observed on this example.

 

20.625 524 25.375 645 .700 17.8 Blade (spine): "Mre d' Armes de St. Etienne 9bre 1875"

Ricasso: " two Circle-M inspection marks

Crosspiece (left): "F 95946" and inspection marks

Crosspiece (front): "13" "R" and illegible inspection mark

Back           Next
Return to Bayonet Identification Guide Index
© Ralph E. Cobb 2010 All Rights Reserved       Top
All-metal ersatz (substitute) bayonets were made in Germany during the early years of World War I, because there weren't enough regulation bayonets to equip the rapidly expanding army. As time went on, these stop-gap bayonets were replaced by regulation bayonets and many were given to Turkish forces. Ersatz bayonets were manufactured in local workshops, resulting in hundreds of variations. I only have a small number of examples, however, these should aid in making a general identification. The German specification was for a 12-inch blade. The Turks shortened many blades to 10-inches and shortened examples can be presumed to have been in Turkish hands (or 'Turked' if you like).

Two ersatz bayonet reference works exist. The first, published in 1976, is Anthony Carter's Ersatz Bayonets 1. Carter documented 79 German ersatz variations and a dozen or so non-German ersatz types. He assigned each a number, beginning with #1. The "Carter Numbering System" was the universal classification system for many years. During the 1990s, the importation of massive quantities of ersatz bayonets from Turkey provided a fertile ground for additional research and documentation. Bayonet dealer/collector, Dennis Ottobre, rose to the challenge, publishing his CD-ROM book Observations on Turkish Bayonets in 2002. Hundreds of ersatz variations were documented, some of German origin and some indigenous to Turkey. The Carter Numbering System could not be expanded to account for the wide variety of variations, so gave rise to the more sophisticated Ottobre Classification System. In the Ottobre System, each bayonet is assigned a 4 or 5 digit classification number, where each digit identifies a specific characteristic, rather than simply assigning a number to each bayonet. Sometimes the number "47" will be appended as a prefix and simply denotes chapter 47 of the book, which is dedicated to the ersatz bayonets.

Carter's book is long out of print and hard to find. However, the Ottobre book is available insanely inexpensively from the author at www.ebayonet.com. If you don't already own a copy, what are you waiting for?

These few ersatz examples that I possess are all of German origin, although most have Turk-shortened blades. German-made ersatz bayonet blades typically have a single Fraktur inspection marking on the ricasso or blade spine.

Germany—Ersatz Bayonets

Home Navigation Button
 
Want List Navigation Button
 
Bayonet Collecting Navigation Button
 
Bayonet Identification Guide Navigation Button
 
Researching Your Finds Navigation Button
 
Library Navigation Button
 
Links Page Navigation Button
 
For Sale or Trade Navigation Button
 
BCN Certified Logo
 
Bayonet
Collectors'
Network
 
 
Society of American Bayonet Collectors