(click to enlarge)
Type Description Blade


      in. mm. in. mm. in. mm.  
Early Colonial Socket Bayonet Socket bayonet for a .75–.80 caliber flintlock musket.

2.562 in. (65 mm.) socket with seam under the classic shank attachment shield. L-mortise cut for a bottom bayonet mounting stud. Very heavy for its size, suggesting that it is likely made of iron.

It is very difficult to date early Colonial Period bayonets. They were made in small numbers by local blacksmiths, without benefit of gauges and other production tooling common to European manufacture. As a result, no two are alike.

Colonial Militias began forming in the 1730s. Because early militias focused primarily on defending settlements against Indian attack, the production and procurement of bayonets was spotty, at best. The more established militias, such as in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, are documented as having bayonets by the 1750s. However, by 1775, when the Revolutionary War began in earnest, only about half of Massachusetts Bay Colony muskets were equipped with bayonets.

The Germanic features: forward-sweeping shank, flattened triangular blade profile, and applied socket construction are reminiscent of ca. 1730 European production, which points to Colonial American manufacture during the French & Indian War or early Revolution Period (1755–1770). The example below is more typical of bayonets produced during the Revolutionary War, when locally-made bayonets tended to more closely copy official British or French designs.

The blade measures 0.875 in. (22 mm.) wide. The muzzle length is 1.0625 in. (27 mm.).

14.437 341 16.00 406 1.00 25.4 None.
Colonial Socket Bayonet Socket bayonet for use with a .75 caliber flintlock musket.

Blacksmith-made copy of a British Early Land Pattern Brown Bess socket bayonet. The mortise is cut for a bottom bayonet mounting stud.

Although crude by European standards, this bayonet is a fairly refined example of the non-regulation bayonets made during the Revolutionary War. This example probably dates from 1770–1780.

The socket measures 3.625 in. (92 mm.) long. The blade measures 1.165 in. (30 mm.) wide. The muzzle length is 1.11 in. (28 mm.).

16.50 419 20.125 511 .915 23.2 None.
Springfield Pattern 1807 Socket bayonet for use with the .69 caliber Springfield "Charleville" musket.

A clone of the French M1763 musket, the Charleville was the first musket type produced at Springfield Armory, following its founding in 1795.

Prior to creation of the Ordnance Department, in 1812, military small arms manufacturing lacked the organization and standardization that is generally associated with U.S. arms. Nomenclature around bayonets produced 1795–1815 is somewhat uncertain, due to lack of standardization and almost continual introduction of design changes.

Schmidt identifies this bayonet as the Springfield Pattern 1807, which was produced from 1807–09. Earlier references may refer to this bayonet as the M1808.

The Pattern 1807 was the first U.S. socket bayonet to have a bridge. The bridge strengthened the rear of the socket against the tendency to spread apart and cause the bayonet to dismount. As can be seen in the third picture at left, the bridge was almost paper thin. Subsequent bayonets, such as the M1816 below, had a more substantial bridge.

In addition, the Pattern 1807 bayonet was the first U.S. bayonet to feature a face flute. As seen in the picture at left, the face flute was only about 5.00 in. (127 mm.) long and was very narrow.

This example was made in 1809, owing to the diameter of the neck. In 1809, the neck diameter was increased from 0.360 in. (9.1 mm.) to 0.435–0.450 in. (11.0-11.4 mm.). This example's neck measures .460 in. (11.7 mm.). In 1810, Springfield introduced a longer socket (3.40 in. (86 mm.) vs. 2.70 in. (69 mm.) on this example).

The only marking is a reference number that would also have been stamped on the musket's bayonet stud. 1809 was prior to the introduction of interchangeable parts, so each musket was produced as a "stand-of-arms," with its own bayonet.

14.687 373 17.437 443 .850 21.6 Socket: "48"
M1816 Socket bayonet for use with the .69 caliber U.S. M1816 flintlock musket.

The M1816 had a very long production period, from 1818 to 1840. Early examples were left in the white, while later examples were browned. Both Springfield and Harper's Ferry Armories produced the M1816.

The M1816 introduced the distinctive T-mortise. The point was also unique, resembling the prow of a boat. No other US bayonet type was pointed this way. There is an abbreviated face flute, extending about 9 in. (230 mm.) back of the point. The socket length is 3 in. (76 mm.).

This example was made at the Springfield Armory, likely between 1827–1831, by bayonet forger Timothy Allen (based on period records, the initials accompanying the arsenal mark correspond those of the bayonet forger). Beginning in 1827, the neck diameter was increased from 0.435–0.460 in. (11.0–11.7 mm.) to 0.460–0.500 in. (11.7-12.7 mm.). This example's neck measures .472 in. (12.0 mm.). Beginning in 1832, inspectors placed their initials on the neck, rather than using a punch mark on the blade (each inspector put the punch mark in a different location). This example has the punch mark after the "US" arsenal mark.

I obtained this example from an older gentleman, who purchased it in the early 1960s from the famous Francis Bannerman Sons military surplus dealer of New York.

16.25 413 19.25 489 .845 21.5 Ricasso: "US." over "TA"
M1819 Hall Rifle Socket bayonet for use with the .52 caliber M1819 breech loading rifle designed and patented by Captain John H. Hall.

The unique offset bridge is diagnostic of the M1819 bayonet, required due to the rifle’s sights being offset to the left in order to facilitate operation of the breech block. This example has rounded blade shoulders, rather than the more commonly-encountered scalloped shoulders. Face flute measures 7.50 in. (191 mm.). Socket length is 2.937 (75 mm.); Muzzle length is 1.10 in. (28 mm.).

A total of 29,593 M1819 (flintlock) and M1841 (percussion) Hall’s Patent breech loading rifles were produced between 1823–1842. 19,680 at Harper’s Ferry Arsenal and 5,700 by Connecticut contractor, Simeon North. The M1819 was the first breech loading military rifle produced in quantity and was the first rifled U.S. military arm to mount a bayonet.

The M1819 rifle was beautifully engineered and worked reasonably well. It was reliable and produced a vastly higher rate of fire than any musket of the period, all with the superior accuracy of a rifle. That said, troops found firing the M1819 unpleasant due to gas leakage around the breechblock. Although detrimental in many respects, gas leakage served to rid the action of powder fouling, enabling 20 or 30 shots before cleaning vs. 3 or 4 shots for a muzzle loading rifle. However, the firer received the escaping gas in the face and downward toward their trigger hand, something most could simply not get used to. As a consequence, M1819 rifles mostly sat in storage. The lock, breechblock, and trigger were a single, easily-removable assembly that could be loaded and fired (kind of a makeshift pocket pistol).

The M1819 rifle was the first truly assembly-line military rifle with fully-interchangeable parts. The production line that Hall created at Harpers Ferry was mechanized to an unprecedented level, which enabled use of unskilled labor (boys) and resulted in parts exhibiting previously unachievable levels of precision and uniformity. Hall’s innovative machines and processes fathered the American System of Manufacturing. The Hall breech loading mechanism paved the way for development of the Spencer, Sharps, and other successful breech loading rifles and carbines of the U.S. Civil War.

15.812 402 18.75 476 .785 19.9 Ricasso: single punch mark
Thumbnail image of Type I U.S. Fencing BayonetThumbnail image of Type I U.S. Fencing BayonetThumbnail image of Type I U.S. Fencing BayonetThumbnail image of Type I U.S. Fencing BayonetThumbnail image of Type I U.S. Fencing BayonetThumbnail image of Type I U.S. Fencing BayonetThumbnail image of Type I U.S. Fencing Bayonet Type I Fencing Bayonet U.S. Fencing Bayonet used with the .69 caliber U.S. M1816 flintlock musket.

This is the first documented type of U.S. Fencing Bayonet, designated Type I by Hardin and Reilly. Based on the M1816 socket bayonet, this example still has much of its original browned finish and the original thumbscrew for securing the blade.

The original M1816 blade would be milled away (as shown in the unfinished example below), to be replaced with a box receptacle in which to secure a flexible whalebone (actually, baleen) blade with a leather-covered cork or rubber ball at the end. Later fencing bayonets, like the U.S. M1912, had flexible spring steel blades covered in russet-colored leather.

American use of fencing bayonets for training began before the U.S. Civil War. Schmidt documented that Watervliet Arsenal in New York produced 1,500 Type I fencing bayonets in 1852–53. This would coincide with the 1852 publication of Captain (later, Maj. Gen.) George B. McClellan's Manual of Bayonet Exercise for the Army.

The example of McClellan's manual in our collection was printed in 1862 and used to train African-American soldiers of the 41st USCT. After marching 30 miles in 26 1/2 hours, these soldiers stopped the retreat of Lee's Army at Appomattox Courthouse shortly after 7 a.m. on the morning of April 9, 1865, in the final engagement of the Civil War in Virginia. Less than one hour after, Lee began his historic ride to see General Grant.

n/a n/a .825 21.0 Socket: "w a 52"

Socket (bridge): "L 13"

Thumbnail image of early U.S. fencing bayonet based on the M1835 socket bayonetThumbnail image of early U.S. fencing bayonet based on the M1835 socket bayonetThumbnail image of early U.S. fencing bayonet based on the M1835 socket bayonetThumbnail image of early U.S. fencing bayonet based on the M1835 socket bayonet Early U.S. Fencing Bayonet This previously undocumented U.S. Fencing Bayonet was intended for use with the .69 caliber U.S. M1840 flintlock and M1842 percussion muskets. 

This most unusual example is based on the M1835 socket bayonet. It may be the first of its type known to exist.  Fencing bayonets based on the M1816 bayonet (Type I) and the M1855 bayonet (Type II) have been documented, but not a fencing bayonet based on the M1835 bayonet. This example was never completed, in that the box receptacle to secure the baleen blade was never attached to the blade stub and the rough tool marks not polished out. Perhaps, this was a prototype of a design that was not adopted.

The workmanship on this example is quite good, suggesting that it was likely altered by one of the government arsenals.  The original “U.S.” ricasso mark and face flute are still partially visible after machining the blade stub to accept the fencing blade receptacle. The brass screw is quite old, but is not the type typically documented with 19th Century U.S. Fencing Bayonets.

n/a n/a .845 21.5 Ricasso: "U.S."
M1855 Sword Bayonet Sword bayonet for use with M1841 "Mississippi" Rifles that were rebored to .58 caliber and altered to accept a sword bayonet.

This bayonet was the second type of sword bayonet manufactured for use with alterations of the M1841 Rifle. This particular alteration required extensive work on the rifle, leading to a third, more economical alteration that used a totally different bayonet.

According to the late Robt. Reilly, only 10,286 bayonets of this type were produced at the Harpers Ferry Armory during 1855–57. I have not yet been able to identify the inspector "SP". Hopefully, further research will reveal the information.

The blade profile is unique. It is not a yataghan, but simply a curved blade with the hilt offset to keep the blade point out of the bullet's path. Notice in the second image, how the hilt's upper edge and the blade's upper edge are way out of parallel. This odd blade design was not used on any other bayonet.

The scabbard is leather with brass mounts.

21.625 549 26.375 670 .885 22.5 Hilt (upper flat): "SP" and "19"
Thumbnail image of US M1855 socket bayonetThumbnail image of US M1855 socket bayonetThumbnail image of US M1855 socket bayonetThumbnail image of US M1855 socket bayonet M1855 Socket Bayonet Socket bayonet used with the .58 caliber M1855, M1861, and M1863 rifle-muskets.

The standard socket bayonet used by union forces during the U.S. Civil War, 1.5 million were produced by Springfield Armory and private contractors 1857–1865. The socket length is 3.00 in. (76 mm.).

This example was made prior to 1864, when the locking ring mortise was lengthened by 2/10 in. (5 mm.) to allow the locking ring to travel past center for increased securing force. Collins & Company had previously began setting the stop pin above center to serve the same purpose (see Sharps New Model bayonet below). Springfield Armory opted for the locking ring modification instead in November 1863, as the improved locking ring could also be retrofitted to earlier bayonets.

18.00 460 21.00 533 .780 19.8 Ricasso: "US"
M1835/42 Musket Conversion Socket bayonet for use with .69 caliber U.S. M1840 and M1842 muskets that were updated by rifling the barrels and, in the case of the flintlock M1840, converted to percussion ignition.

The M1840 was the last U.S. military flintlock musket. The M1842 was the first U.S. military percussion musket and the last U.S. infantry musket to be made as a smoothbore.

A clone of the M1835/42 socket bayonet, made after M1835/42 production had ceased at the national armories in Springfield, Illinois, and Harpers Ferry, Virginia. This example is identical to the M1835/42 bayonets made from 1839–1855, except for its tapered blade shoulders. Period M1835/42 bayonets had scalloped blade shoulders, like the Enfield bayonet pictured above. Tapered blade shoulders were not introduced until after 1855. The socket length is 2.625 in. (67 mm.).

Perhaps this bayonet was made 1856–59 when existing M1840 and M1842 muskets were rifled at the national armories; or early in the Civil War, when the converted M1840 and M1842 Rifled-Muskets were pressed into service.

18.00 457 20.625 524 .845 21.5 Ricasso: "U.S."
U.S. M1847 Artillery Musketoon socket bayonetU.S. M1847 Artillery Musketoon socket bayonetU.S. M1847 Artillery Musketoon socket bayonetU.S. M1847 Artillery Musketoon socket bayonet M1847 Artillery Musketoon Socket bayonet for use with the .69 caliber M1847 Artillery Musketoon.

The M1847 Artillery, Cavalry, and Sapper's & Miner's Musketoons were among the last smoothbore long arms produced for the U.S. military. 3,359 M1847 Artillery Musketoons were produced 1848-59 without the ability to mount a bayonet. In 1858-59, an unknown quantity of M1847 Cavalry Musketoons were altered by Springfield Armory for use as Artillery Musketoons. The conversion also included installation of a bayonet stud to mount a socket bayonet.

M1835/42 bayonets were shortened to 15-15 1/2 in. blade length for use with the Artillery Musketoon conversions. Examples are found with both the earlier scalloped blade shoulders and the mid-1850s tapered blade shoulders (like this example). A characteristic of these socket bayonets is the front edge of the socket being rolled (i.e., rounded over), the purpose of which is not known.

The socket length is 2.625 in. (67 mm.).

15.50 394 18.125 460 .845 21.5 Ricasso: "U.S."
Thumbnail image of Enfield Rifle-Musket socket bayonetThumbnail image of Enfield Rifle-Musket socket bayonetThumbnail image of Enfield Rifle-Musket socket bayonetThumbnail image of Enfield Rifle-Musket socket bayonet Enfield Rifle-Musket
Socket bayonet for use with the .577 Caliber Enfield Rifle-Musket (also referred to in the USA as the "3-Band Enfield").

This example has no British government markings, indicating that it was likely imported to the USA during the American Civil War. The Enfield was the second most common rifle used in the American Civil War, with nearly 1 million imported and used by both sides. The socket length is 2.9375 in. (75 mm.).

According to British socket bayonet authority Graham Priest, the “J•R” marking indicates that the bayonet was likely made in Liege, Belgium. The other ricasso marking may be an incomplete CHAVASSE. There was a retailer, Horace Chavasse & Co., at Alma street, Aston Newton (near Birmingham, England) 1860–1868. Chavasse has been documented as also having marked and exported P1856 sword bayonets.

Ricasso: "P (dot) B" and “CHAVAS”

Socket (rear edge): 2 punch marks and 7 notches

Thumbnail image of J. D. Greene socket bayonetThumbnail image of J. D. Greene socket bayonetThumbnail image of J. D. Greene socket bayonetThumbnail image of J. D. Greene socket bayonet J. D. Greene Socket bayonet for use with the .546 caliber J. D. Greene bolt-action breech loading rifle.

Patterned after the M1855 socket bayonet, the J. D. Greene socket differs in having a basal locking ring and straight mortise. The socket length is 3.00 in. (76 mm.). J. D. Greene bayonets had a blued finish, where the M1855 and most other Civil War socket bayonets were finished in the white. This example retains much of the original blue finish on the blade.

Approximately 4,000 J. D. Greene rifles were manufactured 1859-63 by the Asa H. Waters Armory in Millbury, Massachusetts, 3,000 of which were shipped to Russia. The Massachusetts State Militia is believed to have received a small number of Greene rifles, which they likely employed in September 1862 at Antietam. Antietam was the only documented Civil War use of Greene rifles (Greene cartridges have been excavated there). The U. S. Ordnance Dept. contracted for 900 Greene rifles in January 1863; taking delivery later that year. These rifles are believed to have remained in stores, never seeing service.

Patented in 1857 by Lt. Col. James Durell Greene, and improved in 1862, this was the first bolt-action rifle adopted by the U. S. Ordnance Dept. In addition to being the first regulation bolt-action, it was the only regulation underhammer action, only regulation oval-bore rifle, and only regulation rifle whose cartridge held the bullet behind the powder charge. The action was complex to operate and the unconventional loading procedure was simply beyond the ability of the common soldier to manage under fire.

18.187 462 21.00 533 .871 19.9 Ricasso: "J. D. G."
Thumbnail image of Sharps New Model Socket BayonetThumbnail image of Sharps New Model Socket BayonetThumbnail image of Sharps New Model Socket BayonetThumbnail image of Sharps New Model Socket Bayonet Early Sharps/ Spencer Socket Bayonet Socket bayonet for use with.52 caliber Sharps breech loading rifles and .52 caliber Spencer repeating rifles adapted for a socket bayonet.

According to research published in the Society of American Bayonet Collectors (SABC) Journal, Volume 26, Winter 1998, these early Sharps/Spencer bayonets are believed manufactured by W.T. Clements of the Bay State Works, Northampton, Massachusetts.

Bay State Works is documented as having received a State of Massachusetts contract for sword blades, bayonets and gun barrels on July 2, 1861. The Army purchased 668 Sharps rifles from the Union Defense Committee of New York one month later, in August 1861. Collins & Co. produced most of the socket bayonets used with Sharps rifles, however, did not begin production until much later, so the bayonets supplied with these first Sharps rifles came from another source.

Bay State Works is also believed to have produced the bayonets supplied by Boston contractor, Augustine J. Drake who altered Model 1841 rifles to the Lindner patent for the State of Massachusetts. All of these bayonets share an unusual blade design, with the back flutes cut all the way through the elbow, that has come to be known as the “Drake Pattern.”

The first 1,200 Spencer repeating rifles delivered to the Army are documented as having been accompanied by socket bayonets with 18.5 in. (470 mm.) blades produced in Northampton. These bayonets were not compatible with the Army’s existing 18-inch bayonet scabbards. In November 1862, the Ordnance Department accepted the bayonets that had already been produced, but required that any additional Spencer bayonets be of the standard 18-inch blade pattern as those used with the .58 caliber Springfield rifle-musket.

If the above is an indication, fewer than 2,000 of these bayonets may have been produced. Only a handful of examples are known to exist today.

The socket length is 3.00 in. (76 mm.).
18.50 470 21.50 546 .815 20.7 None.
Socket bayonet for use with the .44 caliber rimfire M1866 Winchester lever-action infantry musket.

The M1866 socket bayonet is distinctive by its small size and exceptionally brief elbow. Note the high bridge required to clear the Winchester's tall front sight.

Production of the M1866 infantry musket began in 1869. The number produced by the Winchester Repeating Arms Co. of New Haven, CT is unknown, because M1866 production records are incomplete.

The M1866 infantry musket was used by some State Militias and was produced for foreign sales. M1866 muskets produced for Turkey mounted a sword bayonet, rather than this socket. The Winchester was not adopted by the U.S. military, due to the insufficient long-range performance of the .44 caliber cartridge and the Ordnance Department's disdain for the repeating rifle.

The socket length is 2.625 in. (67 mm.) and the muzzle length is 1.125 in. (29 mm.).

15.25 387 18.00 457 .635 16.1 None.
Thumbnail image of Peabody M1867 socket bayonetThumbnail image of Peabody M1867 socket bayonetThumbnail image of Peabody M1867 socket bayonet M1867
Socket bayonet for use with the Model 1867 Peabody cartridge rifle.

This uncommon and nondescript socket bayonet is identified primarily by its dimensions and the rather long ricasso, compared to regulation U.S. bayonets. The socket length is 2.625 in. (67 mm.).

Approximately 96,000 Peabody rifles that used the M1867 bayonet were produced 1867–71 by the Providence Tool Co. of Providence, Rhode Island, based on a design patented by inventor Henry O. Peabody. The vast majority were for foreign contracts:

Variant Quantity Cartridge
Swiss 15,000 .41 Swiss Rimfire
Romanian 25,000 .45 Romanian


.43 Spanish
.43 Spanish
.43 Spanish
U.S. Militia Rifle:



Although the Peabody fared exceptionally well in the breechloading rifle trials of 1865, the hoped-for large U.S. Government contract never materialized.
18.187 462 20.812 529 .715 18.2 None.
Socket bayonet for use on Remington No. 1 Rolling Block rifles produced for export.

Closely patterned on the Swedish M1867 socket bayonet, 10,000 of which were made by Remington. Completely unmarked, this example differs from the Swedish contract bayonet in having been produced in the white (Swedish bayonets were blued) and in having a steel socket (Swedish M1867s made by Remington had an iron socket). The socket length is 2.625 in. (67 mm.).

One of the challenges with Remington Rolling Block bayonets is that there were so many customers/production contracts (and everybody wanted something a little different). It is not clear which rolling block rifle contract this bayonet was produced for, as it does not exactly match any of the examples listed in Janzen's book on Remington bayonets.

18.125 460 20.75 527 .720 18.3 None.
Thumbnail image of U.S. M1868 Sword FrogThumbnail image of U.S. M1868 Sword FrogThumbnail image of U.S. M1868 Sword FrogThumbnail image of U.S. M1868 Sword Frog M1868 Sword Frog Leather belt frog for carrying the M1840 Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) sword. Although not for a bayonet, this frog is so closely patterned after European bayonet frogs, it is sometimes mistaken as such.

This frog was adopted in 1868, when the Ordnance Department decided that leather would no longer be used for sword and bayonet scabbards. From that point forward, blackened steel scabbards were produced for the M1840 NCO sword. The steel scabbard had a frog stud, rather than the sword hanger loops used with the leather scabbard.

This frog was also used to carry the M1840 Bandsman (Musician) Sword until the late 1890's. The bandsman sword was shorter than the M1840 NCO sword and lacked the handguard.

Use of the NCO Sword was curtailed after 1875, being reserved for wear by senior staff NCOs (1st Sgt., Quartermaster Sgt., and Sgt Major) at regimental or general headquarters. As a result, these frogs are uncommon.

This example was produced at Rock Island Arsenal (RIA). RIA started dating items after 1902, so this undated example likely pre-dates 1902. I don’t know how long the M1868 Sword Frog remained in service, but have observed one made at RIA that was dated 1907. A 1917 printing of the Ordnance Department’s publication, Horse Equipments and Equipments for Officers and Enlisted Men, revised July 3, 1908, still shows this frog in use.

The “E.H.S.” marking identifies leather goods inspector, Emil H. Schmitten. According to the Rock Island Armory, Schmitten worked ca.1903–1905. However, the existence of this example demonstrates that he was likely working prior to 1902.

The frog measures 7.00 in. (178 mm.) long by 3.125 in. (79 mm.) wide at the widest point.
n/a n/a n/a Front:"Rock Island" over "Arsenal"

Rear: "AC" over "E.H.S."

M1873 Socket bayonet for use on the .45–70 Caliber U.S. Rifle M1873 (Trapdoor Springfield) rifle.

The beautiful high-polish blue finish illustrates the painstaking workmanship exhibited on these rifles and bayonets. The socket length is 3.00 in. (76 mm.).

Leather scabbard hanger is for a 1.50 in. (38 mm.) wide equipment belt and was made at Watervliet Arsenal, Watervliet, NY.

The scabbard is attached to the leather hanger by two small tabs, one of which is riveted to the leather.  According to Reilly, this is indicative that this scabbard was made prior to the riveted tab being phased out in the early 1880s.

18.00 457 21.00 533 .730 18.5 Ricasso: "U.S."

Scabbard Hanger:  "Watervliet Arsenal" and "U.S." on brass rosette

Scabbard (Leather Throat): Feint inspector name, believed to be "A.R. Smith"

M1873 Cadet Socket bayonet for use on the .45–70 Caliber U.S. Cadet Rifle M1873 (Trapdoor Springfield). 

This bayonet is a scaled-down version of the issue M1873 socket bayonet. The socket length is 3.00 in. (76 mm.).

The cadet rifle was shorter than the standard M1873 infantry rifle, since its primary use was for drilling.  However, the cadet rifle was made to the same standards as it's full-sized cousin and was every bit as accurate and lethal.

There were approximately 22,000 M1873 Cadet Rifles produced during its 20-year production period.

16.00 406 19.25 489 .725 18.4 Ricasso: "US"
Socket bayonet for use with the .44-40 caliber M1873 Winchester lever-action infantry musket.

The bayonet is unusual in that the elbow is only 3/4 in. long, about half the length of a U.S. M1873 Springfield bayonet above. It is also unusual for the time period, in having the mortise cut so that the bayonet hangs beneath the rifle barrel. Notice the high bridge required to clear the Winchester's tall front sight. Most socket bayonets don't have a very sharp point, but the point on this one is like a needle.

The M1873 was the first Winchester rifle to use a centerfire cartridge. Approximately 35,000 M1873 infantry muskets were produced by the Winchester Repeating Arms Co. of New Haven, CT, from 1874–1919. Infantry muskets accounted for roughly five percent of M1873 production.

The M1873 infantry musket was produced mostly for foreign sales. It had some popularity in South America, going to Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. They also went to Mexico, France, and Turkey. The Winchester was not adopted by the U.S. military, due to the insufficient long-range performance of the .44 caliber cartridge and the Ordnance Department's disdain for the repeating rifle.

The socket length is 3.00 in. (76 mm.) and the muzzle length is 1.25 in. (32 mm.).

18.00 457 21.00 533 .663 16.8 None.
Thumbnail image of Winchester-Horchkiss socket bayonet.Thumbnail image of Winchester-Horchkiss socket bayonet.Thumbnail image of Winchester-Horchkiss socket bayonet. Winchester-Hotchkiss Socket bayonet for use with the .45–70 caliber Winchester-Hotchkiss rifle. This bayonet is also believed used with the military musket variant of the Winchester M1876 and M1886 lever-action rifles (very few made).

The Winchester-Hotchkiss bayonet is distinguished from the M1873 by its slightly longer blade and smaller socket diameter (smaller than either the M1867 Peabody or M1873). The socket length is 3.00 in. (76 mm.). The way in which the elbow was formed created a slight "pinch" at the inside radius, where the ricasso terminates; and a slightly bulbous "swell" on the outside radius, where the blade flutes terminate at the elbow.

The Winchester-Hotchkiss was a bolt-action repeating rifle produced by Winchester 1879–1899 and at Springfield Armory 1879–81. During this period, 84,555 rifles of all variants were produced. 2,986 rifles were manufactured at Springfield Armory: 513 for the Army (designated M1878) and 2,473 for the Navy (designated M1879). The U.S. Government purchased an unknown quantity of additional rifles of a third type produced by Winchester (designated M1883).

18.25 464 21.25 540 .690 17.5 None.
Originally made 1855–1865 at the Springfield Armory, Springfield, MA. This example was subsequently modified by cutting off the rear portion of the socket.

Modified for use on a cadet musket or possibly as a movie prop, by shortening the socket length to 1.875 in. (48 mm.). Mounts perfectly to my .577 Caliber Enfield Rifle-Musket.

Similar examples turn up periodically, so were modified in quantity. No way to know who altered them (Bannerman, one of the movie houses, or ?).

18.25 464 20.125 511 .770 19.6 Ricasso: "US" over "S"
Thumbnail image of an MGM Studios M1873 movie prop bayonetThumbnail image of an MGM Studios M1873 movie prop bayonetThumbnail image of an MGM Studios M1873 movie prop bayonetThumbnail image of an MGM Studios M1873 movie prop bayonet M1873 MGM Movie Prop U.S. M1873 socket bayonet altered by MGM Studios for use as a movie prop.

The socket has been split to adapt the socket to different diameter rifle barrels. Approximately 1/8" has been removed from the socket rear, shortening the socket length from 3 in. (76 mm.) to 2.875 in. (73 mm.).

The "MGM" property marking indicates that this example came from the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios prop department, the contents of which were sold off in 1969-70.

18.00 457 20.875 530 Variable Ricasso: "U.S."

Socket: "MGM"

M1892 Knife bayonet for use on the .30 Government Caliber U.S. Magazine Rifle M1898 (.30–40 Caliber Krag-Jorgensen) and variations. The "Krag" was the U.S. Army's first repeating rifle.

The M1892 bayonet was based on the Swiss M1889 bayonet, made for use on the 7.5 mm. M1889 Schmidt-Rubin straight-pull bolt-action rifle.

This is an early example, made in 1895 at Springfield Armory.  It has been arsenal overhauled during or after 1899, as evidenced by the rough grips held by domed rivets.  Pre-1899, the grips were sanded smooth and the rivets flush. The "US" ricasso marking was nearly obliterated by the polishing done during arsenal rework.

I obtained this piece from an older gentleman in Benecia, CA. He indicated that it had been his dad's.  His home, which I visited, was approximately 1 mile from the old Benecia Arsenal. He indicated that a relative had worked at the Arsenal. It has been documented that Krag rifles were overhauled at Benecia Arsenal.

The condition of this example is exceptional, with bright metal and no rust or staining. The blade still had cosmoline on it when I obtained the piece.

11.625 295 16.375 416 .620 15.7 Ricasso (Right): "US" (nearly invisible)

Ricasso (Left):  "1895"
Thumbnail image of M1912 Picket Pin ScabbardThumbnail image of M1912 Picket Pin ScabbardThumbnail image of M1912 Picket Pin ScabbardThumbnail image of M1912 Picket Pin Scabbard M1912 Picket Pin Scabbard Leather scabbard for carrying the M1912 Picket Pin.

The M1912 Picket Pin scabbard is sometimes found with the M1892 knife bayonet, described as a “cavalry scabbard.” This description is spurious, probably concocted by early 20th Century surplus dealers like Bannerman. This myth still persists in popular culture, despite the Krag-Jorgensen Carbine’s inability to accept a bayonet and the Krag-Jorgensen being out of service nearly a decade before development of the M1912 Cavalry Equipment.

The M1912 Cavalry Equipment was issued to the First Cavalry Regiment and selected cavalry squadrons in six other regiments for field trials. The equipment proved unsatisfactory, generating a volume of complaints. In 1915, an Army Cavalry Board was convened at Rock Island Arsenal to investigate and production of M1912 Cavalry Equipment was halted. Stocks of cavalry equipment soon ran low; and before the Board could complete its investigation, production of M1904 (McClellan) Cavalry Equipment was ordered resumed. These shortages forced use of M1912 Cavalry Equipment by troops deployed into Mexico during the 1916 Punitive Expedition against Mexican revolutionary leader Pancho Villa.

Although a few items of M1912 Cavalry Equipment were adopted, the M1912 Picket Pin being one of them, the Army retained the M1904 McClellan Saddle and Cavalry Equipment until the final horse cavalry unit was dismounted in March 1944.
n/a 12.75 325 n/a None.
Remington No. 5 Knife bayonet for use on the 7 mm. Remington No. 5 rolling block rifle. Very unusual example made with a straight crosspiece.

Most No. 5 knife bayonets were made for export, with a hooked lower crosspiece. This bayonet is most often associated with Mexico's purchase of 15,000 rifles in 1899–1900. However, Remington records indicate that an additional 97,887 7 mm. rifles were produced from 1896–1921.

This example isn't a hooked version that has had the hook deleted, but was made with a straight guard (follow this link for a comparison of this example to the hooked version). Janzen's book on Remington bayonets shows the straight guard short No. 5 bayonet, but doesn't give any info as to who they were made for or why.

Remington produced the No. 5 bayonet in two additional blade lengths: 13.187 in. (335 mm.) for Mexico and 16.00 in. (406 mm.) for France.

The scabbard has a steel body and integral leather belt hanger. The overall length, including the belt hanger is 13.125 in. (333 mm.). The leather belt hanger measures 5.625 in. long (143 mm.) by 1.75 in. wide (44 mm.). Another scabbard used with the No. 5 knife bayonet has a steel-mounted leather body and steel belt hook, instead of the leather hanger.

8.00 203 12.50 318 .590 15.0 Fuller: "Remington Arms Co. Ilion, NY USA"
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USA—18th and 19th Century Bayonets

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