(click to enlarge)
|M1874 Socket||Socket bayonet for use on the 11.4 mm. (.45 caliber) M1874 Peabody-Martini rifle, produced in the U.S. for the Turkish government.
The socket is blued and the blade in the white. The socket is cut so that the bayonet hangs below the rifle's barrel. The socket length is 3.125 in. (79 mm.).
These rifles and bayonets were made in the 1870s by the Providence Tool Company in Providence, Rhode Island, based on a design patented by inventor Henry O. Peabody. According to research by Edward A. Hull, published in the Society of American Bayonet Collectors (SABC) Journal, Volume 2, Spring 1989, the initial order of rifles were supplied with this socket bayonet. Upwards of 400,000 bayonets were manufactured and delivered to Turkey. When the Providence Tool Co. ceased Peabody-Martini rifle production in 1879, their bayonet manufacture also ceased.
Yataghan sword bayonet for use on the 11.4 mm. (.45 caliber) M1874 Peabody-Martini rifle. This bayonet also mounts to the 7.65 mm. Turkish Peabody-Martini rifle alteration.
Hull's research also indicated that the Providence Tool Co. obtained an 1875 contract with the Turkish government for Peabody-Martini rifles with saber bayonets. They subcontracted with Ames Manufacturing Co. of Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts, for their manufacture. 200,000 of these large, heavy sword bayonets were made.
This example has been converted into a dress saber, by filling the mounting slot and press stud, nickel-plating the entire bayonet, and replacing the original gutta-percha grips with satinwood inlaid with mother-of-pearl.
"Yataghan" is derived from the Turkish word for "one who lays down" to describe the downward-sweeping double-curve blade profile. The double-curve added strength and rigidity, while keeping the hilt and point in alignment for thrusting efficiency.
This example is pictured in Dennis Ottobre's authoritative work, Observations on Turkish Bayonets. It is also featured in my article at surplusrifle.com, Made by Who? - Bayonets From Unlikely Sources.
|M1913||Knife bayonet for use with the 8 mm. Mauser M1893 and M1903 rifles.
This is not a cut-down M1903 bayonet. It was produced new with a short blade. Unlike the long M1903 bayonet, the blade is only 6.5 mm. thick at the ricasso tapering down to 4 mm. before thinning out to it's point.
In the course of research for his book, Dennis Ottobre noted that all examples he examined had the same maker's mark and date on the front face of the crosspiece. The markings are in Osmanlica (Old Turkish) script used prior to 1928. The marking translates to "Tone Han 31". Tone Han is presumably a Turkish maker. The Ottoman calendar date 1331 corresponds to 1913 on the Gregorian calendar, so he classified them as the M1913. This could change, if additional clarifying information surfaces.
The bayonet once had a hooked quillion, which was subsequently removed. According to Dennis Ottobre, the M1913's hilt is the first Turkish bayonet to bear the "small nosed slant pommel" which is found on some later conversions of foreign bayonets to M1935 types.
|9.625||244||14.50||368||.615||15.6||Crosspiece (front): maker's mark and "31" (in Osmanlica script)
Crosspiece (front quillion): Crescent
|M1935||Knife bayonet for use with the 8 mm. Mauser M1893 and M1903 rifles.
This is the final Turkish bayonet type designed for use with Mauser rifles. This example is of new manufacture. However, the M1935 designation is also applied more broadly to a bewildering variety of similarly-dimensioned bayonets cobbled together using recycled parts from older bayonets.
AS.FA is an abbreviation for Askari Fabrika (military factory).
|10.00||254||14.875||378||.605||15.4||Pommel: "A S. F A" and "161795"|
|No. 4 Mk. II||Spike bayonet for use with the .303 caliber Lee-Enfield No. 4 rifle.
Little is known about these British No. 4 spike bayonets used by Turkey. Most examples observed are of USA or Canadian manufacture. This example was made in the USA by the Savage Stevens Co. of Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts.
A quantity of No. 4 rifles were imported to the USA from Turkey in the mid-2000s. These rifles can often be identified by the stacking hook welded to the upper band.
This example came in the modified Turkish belt frog below. The scabbard is an early No. 4 Mk. I with the blued steel throatpiece.
|8.00||203||10.00||254||.595||15.1||Socket: "No 4 Mk II" over "S" and "B 75" over "1455"
Spring Plunger" "S"
Scabbard (throatpiece): "No. 4 Mk. I"
|Belt Frog||Leather belt frog that came on the No. 4 Mk. II bayonet, above.
This is a typical Turkish leather belt frog used with the M1935 bayonet that has been modified by stitching the front piece to better secure the small, round No. 4 scabbard.
The frog measures 9.25 in. (235 mm.) long by 2.625 in. (67 mm.) wide.
This frog was not classified by Carter.
|M1935 Modified (Ottobre #12–102)||M1935 knife bayonet modified for use with the caliber .30–06 M1 Garand rifle.
The USA reportedly provided 312,430 M1 rifles to Turkey, beginning in 1953 and ending with the final shipment of 5,000 in 1972.
The modification includes attaching an auxiliary plate with a smaller muzzle ring behind the original crosspiece. The auxiliary plate is secured with a single large diameter pin, as shown in the 4th image at left.
According to Dennis Ottobre, M1935 bayonets were modified this way for use with both the U.S. M1 Garand and the Greek 6.5 mm. Y:1903 Mannlicher-Shoenauer rifle. (Greek nomenclature used the letter upsilon, 'Y', as an abbreviation for 'model'.) M1 Garand bayonets have an auxiliary muzzle ring diameter in the 13 mm. range, where the Y:1903 bayonets have a minimum muzzle ring diameter of 14 mm.
|9.75||248||14.625||371||.530||13.5||Pommel: "7867" over a previous number (illegible).|
|G1||Knife bayonet for use on the 7.62 mm. NATO caliber G1 (FAL) assault rifle.
Crudely constructed of a new made pressed steel hilt mated with a recycled blade from an earlier Mauser bayonet. Several variations in blade, crosspiece, and muzzle ring have been observed. The scabbard is recycled from an earlier Mauser bayonet. Again, many variations in scabbard design have been observed.
In the early 1960s, Turkey received G1 rifles from Germany, who had procured 100,000 from FN, but then changed to the G3 rifle after FN refused to allow Germany to produce the G1 under license. The Germans did not issue a bayonet with the G1, so Turkey added a bayonet lug to the G1 barrel and produced this makeshift knife bayonet.
|10.00||254||15.50||394||.710||18.0||Grip (right): "54515"|
|G3||Knife bayonet for use on the 7.62 mm. NATO caliber G3 assault rifle.
The Turkish G3 bayonet differs from the German G3 bayonet in many ways. It has a a fullered, double-edged blade that is 3.00 in. (76 mm.) longer. It has a 20–groove, convex, green plastic grip. The press catch is at the 9 O'clock position. It has the broad plain crosspiece.
The scabbard is constructed of two halves of stamped sheet steel folded together, similar to the First World War German Ersatz scabbards produced by Friedrich August Göbel of Solingen (Turkey received and used many Göbel scabbards).
Beginning in 1977, Turkey produced G3A7 rifles under licence at M.K.E. in Ankara (Makina ve Kimya Endustrsi Kurumu, in English, Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corp.). As of 2011, M.K.E. still listed the G3A7 in their product catalog.
In 2009, British bayonet historian R.D.C. Evans published an excellent and comprehensive article on G3 bayonets that is available for download at no cost.
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