(click to enlarge)
|Canada||No. 4 Mk. II||Socket bayonet for use with the caliber .303 Lee-Enfield No. 4 rifle.
This example was made during the Second World War by the Crown Corporation Small Arms Ltd., Long Branch, Ontario, Canada. According to Skennerton, Longbranch made approximately 910,000 bayonets 1942–1944.
|7.875||200||9.875||251||.595||15.1||Socket: Canadian 'broad arrow' acceptance mark over "No 4 Mk II" over a superimposed "LB"|
|No. 4 Mk. II||This example is one of a small number of No. 4 Mk. II bayonets, approximately 5,000, made by Canadian Arsenals Ltd., in a special production run during the Korean War.
These were the last No. 4 socket bayonets produced and the only No. 4’s to carry the distinctive Canadian Arsenals Ltd. trademark.
|7.875||200||9.875||251||.595||15.1||Socket (left): "No. 4 Mk. II" and nested "C" "A" (Canadian Arsenals Ltd. logo).|
|Denmark||M1854||Socket bayonet originally for use on the Dornbuchse M/1849 rifles employed by Prussian-supplied forces rebelling against the Danish Govt. in 1849–1851. The rifles and bayonets were taken into Danish service and reissued as the Suhler Tapriffel Model 1854.
Unique locking spring designed by Johan Christian Wilken Kyhl (pronounced, 'cool') and first introduced in 1794. The Kyhl spring catch was used on Danish bayonets from 1794–1860 and also on bayonets made by Norwegian and Prussian makers.
According to Per Holmback, noted authority on Scandinavian bayonets, approximately 12,000 of these weapons were taken over by the Danish Army after 1851 (from the Schleswig-Holstein rebels) and converted in 1854. The marking "SH XV B 186" stands for Schleswig Holstein 15th Battalion, weapon 186.
Shank: German proofmarks
Socket: "1855_4397" and "SH XV B 186"
|France||M1754 Style Cadet or Officer's Fusil||Diminutive socket bayonet for a downsized cadet musket or officer's fusil, as it is only about 3/4 the size of a regular infantry bayonet. It is patterned after the French M1754 bayonet, which was used with the Charleville musket (which, incidentally, the Americans copied to produce the first U.S. military muskets made at Springfield Armory, following its establishment in 1795).
This bayonet was made in France or Belgium; or possibly here in America. It is hand-forged and devoid of markings, so there's no way to be sure. Either way, it would have been made in the latter part of the 18th Century, 1770 give or take.
The socket length is 2.812 in. (71 mm.).
|M1847||Socket bayonet for a .69 caliber smoothbore musket. The M1847 was a refinement of the M1822 bayonet.
The 2.625 in. (67 mm.) long socket is cut for a bottom stud. The fuller is shallow, as wide as the blade, and squared off where it terminates at the ricasso. The locking ring has a distinctive profile when viewed end-on. The M1847 also introduced the tapered blade shoulder, which the U.S. adopted for its M1855 bayonet.
The acceptance marking on the elbow is consistent with other known Liege, Belgium makers' acceptance marks. The identity of the maker represented by "NL" is not known. The ricasso marking is believed to identify the forger. The identity of the forger represented by "OM" is not known.
Bayonets of this type were imported to the U.S. during the American Civil War to go with the 140,000 French muskets and Belgian copies purchased by the U.S. Ordnance Department.
Shank: crown over cyrillic characters
|S.I.G. 540/542||Socket bayonet for use on the 5.56 mm. NATO caliber Swiss Schweizerische Industrie-Gesellschaft (S.I.G.) 540 and 542, assault rifles, produced in France by MANURHIN (Manufacture de Machines du Haut Rhin). The S.I.G. 540 and 542 served the French Army as interim infantry weapons in the 1980s, until the FAMAS rifle was available in sufficient numbers.
This bayonet bears a resemblance to the Type C socket bayonet used on some variants of the Belgian FN–FAL assault rifle.
The 22 mm. socket diameter allows firing of the NATO-standard 22 mm. rifle grenades.
Since these bayonets are devoid of markings, it is not possible to determine whether this example was made in France or Switzerland.
|Germany||Prussian M1809||Socket bayonet for use with the 17.9 mm. Prussian M1809 flintlock musket.
These are frequently encountered in the USA, owing to the M1809 musket’s use during the U.S. Civil War. The bayonet is unusual in that it lacks the mortise commonly found on socket bayonets. The mounting system was developed by Austria 1798–1799, incorporating a spring on the musket which engages the notch on the bayonet’s socket collar. The unfullered triangular blade and longer 3.00 in. (76 mm.) socket distinguishes the M1809 from the later M1839 bayonet.
Patterned after the French M1777 Charleville musket and designated the “New Prussian Musket,” these were made into the 1830s at the Prussian state arsenals. Commonly referred to by collectors as the “Potsdam musket,” they were made at a half-dozen arsenals, Potsdam being one of them. Many were altered to percussion during the 1840s and stored in war reserves as Prussian regulars were equipped with the M1841 Dreyse needle-fire rifle.
In 1861, the Union purchased 165,000 Prussian arms, most of which were obsolete smoothbore M1809 percussion muskets. Most saw service in the Western Theatre. By the end of 1862, these arms had served their purpose and were soon replaced with more modern rifled weapons.
|19.25||489||22.312||567||.869||22.0||Ricasso: "1" and "H"
|FAL Type C||Socket bayonet for the FN–FAL assault rifles that incorporated the 22 mm. NATO-spec flash hider.
This example was made by A. Eickhorn GmbH of Solingen (AES). This example has temporary export markings "Solingen Germany", suggesting that it was produced following reunification in 1989.
Eickhorn constructed the socket by forging upper and lower halves using a drop hammer. Hot metal was poured in between the halves, to make the complete blank, which was machined to create the tubular socket. The sprue line is evident in the pictures at left.
The scabbard body is plastic, with an integral web belt hanger. The hilt strap's stippled glove fastener is characteristic of Eickhorn products.
Most Belgian FAL Type C bayonets had a drawn socket, although FN also used casting near the end of FAL production. These images of the FN (top) and AES (bottom) show differences that distinguish the two makers' production.
|6.50||165||11.375||289||.890||23.6||Ricasso: "Solingen" over "Germany"
Scabbard (body): "Solingen" over "Germany"
|Hungary||48.M (M91/30)||Socket bayonet for use with the Puska M48 and the M53 sniper variant of the 7.62 mm. M1891/30 Mosin-Nagant rifle.
The M1891/30 was Russia's standard service rifle during the Second World War and was used extensively post-War by Warsaw Pact countries.
Approximately 220,000 rifles were manufactured 1950–53 by Femaru Fegyver es Gepgyar Reszvenytarsasag (F.E.G.), making these bayonets somewhat scarce. The post-war Hungarian bayonets exhibit notably better workmanship than their Russian cousins and and a blued finish.
|17.00||432||19.875||505||.590||15.0||Socket (right): "BG 2035" and inspection mark
Socket (left): "02"
Press Stud: "02"
|India||Sappers & Miners Carbine||Socket with sword bayonet for the caliber .733 Pattern 1841 Sappers and Miners Carbine.
Probably made 1845–1860 in India, it is of somewhat cruder construction than the British-made version.
This 2nd Type example lacks the D–shaped knuckle guard found on the 1st Type.
The socket length is 4.00 in. (102 mm.).
|Indian Conversion Brown Bess Bayonet||Socket bayonet modified for use with .75 caliber Brown Bess flintlock muskets converted to percussion ignition in the 1850s.
This example was originally made ca. 1800 for use with the India Pattern Brown Bess musket. Following British adoption of the Pattern 1853 rifle-musket, many colonial flintlock arms were converted to percussion ignition. The original smoothbore barrels were left in place, so the existing bayonets were modified by brazing a locking ring collar and stop pin to the socket; and installing the locking ring. The socket length measures 4.00 in. (102 mm.). The muzzle length measures 2.00 in. (51 mm.).
The policy of continuing to equip Indian Army units with smoothbore arms long after their obsolescence arose in the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (Sepoy Rebellion). The Rebellion also led to dissolution of the British East India Company. The Company was largely blamed for allowing issues in the Company's private army to fester and spiral out of control, resulting in a year-long conflict that left 100,000 Indians dead. The Crown swiftly retaliated by nationalizing the Company in 1858; seizing its powers, property, and private army.
This bayonet likely had a service life of nearly 100 years, during which polishing and repair obliterated any markings that once may have been present.
|Jordan||No 4. Mk. II*||Socket bayonet for use with the caliber .303 Lee-Enfield No. 4 rifle.
This example has Arabic markings on the socket. Most likely Jordanian from the Arab Legion, but could also have been used by Iraq.
Prior to obtaining independence in 1946, Jordan was a British Protectorate, known as Transjordan.
The British No. 4 Mk. II* socket bayonet was also used in Iraq during the Second World War and by the Iraqi Army after the end of British occupation in 1947.
|8.00||203||10.00||254||.595||15.1||ocket (left): partial PSK mark
Socket (right) "VNS"
|Nepal||Snider-Enfield Socket Bayonet||Socket bayonet for use with the .577 caliber Pattern 1853 Rifle-Musket and Snider-Enfield breechloading conversion. A crude copy of the British Pattern 1853 bayonet.
This and the following example are from a 43-ton cache of weaponry removed from the Royal Nepalese Armory at the Palace of Lagan Silekhana in 2003. Near Katmandu, the Armory housed more than 50,000 firearms; over 150 ancient bronze cannon; tens of thousands of bayonets; and all manner of tools and accessories. The Nepalese were thrifty in the extreme. From the 1830’s onward, it was as if the Armory threw nothing away. Read more about the "Nepal Cache" and my experience breathing new life into a Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle-musket.
|17.50||445||20.562||522||.780||19.8||The markings are all in Devanagari script-
Ricasso: ? over "7"
Elbow (right): "9361"
|Gahendra Socket Bayonet||Socket bayonet for use with the caliber .577/450 Francotte and Gahendra rifles.
A crude copy of the British Pattern 1876 bayonet, with a larger diameter socket. The Gahendra and Francotte barrels had thicker walls than the Martini-Henry, making the outside diameter too large to accept the British Pattern 1876 bayonet.
The scabbard is of British manufacture, for the Pattern 1876 bayonet, as evidenced by the War Department acceptance mark.
The Nepalese “Francotte” copied an improved Martini-Henry design by Belgian maker August Francotte and dating to 1877. The Nepalese rifles used Francotte’s detachable trigger and firing mechanism, but without Francotte’s patented cocking indicator. The Nepalese Francotte rifles suffered from poor metallurgy and other defects, so were not a successful design.
The “Gahendra” is named after its developer, Nepalese military engineer General Gahendra Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana. The Gahendra rifle was based on an 1869 Westley Richards patented design, but incorporated its own detachable trigger and firing mechanism. The Gahendra’s distinctive underlever has a downward-curving loop and attaches to the action in front of the trigger.
The quality of manufacture was improved over the Francotte, and was considered a successful design. The number produced is not known. However, a report dated 1906 indicated that 8,983 Gahendra rifles were still on hand. In addition to the rifle that bears his name, Gahendra also developed the Bira gun, a contemporary of the rapid-fire Gatling and Gardner guns.
|22.25||565||25.25||641||.770||19.6||The markings are in Devanagari script-
Elbow (right): “Ha • 1258 •” (Don't know what the letter Ha represents)
Socket: "4" over "12"
Scabbard (chape): War Department acceptance mark
|Netherlands||M1871 First Pattern||Cruciform socket bayonet for use on the 11.4 mm. Beaumont rifle.
The Beaumont was an early, single-shot bolt-action rifle. In 1881, Beaumont rifles were converted into repeaters by adding the, then revolutionary, Vitali box magazine. This was the first use of a box magazine on a military rifle. The Vitali box magazine system was subsequently used by Italy on their Vetterli rifles.
This example is of the first pattern bayonet, with a conventional one-piece iron locking ring. The socket length is 2.625 in. (67 mm.).
According to Dutch bayonet collector/researcher Erwin Muetstege, the initial design used a conventional, one-piece locking ring made of iron, which was copied from the Snider bayonet. In 1875, the War Department changed to the two-piece locking ring, made of steel.
|20.125||511||22.75||578||.700||17.8||Socket: "N 131"
|M1871 Second Pattern||This example is of the second pattern, with its unique two-piece steel locking ring. The socket length is 2.625 in. (67 mm.).||20.25||514||22.875||581||.700||17.8||Socket: "S 117"
|New Zealand||No 4. Mk. II||Socket bayonet for use with the caliber .303 Lee-Enfield No. 4 rifle. These saw extensive use during the Second World War and into the 1950s, when the Lee-Enfield was superseded by the 7.62 mm. NATO caliber FN–FAL assault rifle.
This example went to New Zealand to equip the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force. The 2nd NZEF fought in the North African and European Theatres as part of the British 8th Army.
Based on serial numbers observed, approximately 35,000 No. 4 bayonets went to New Zealand.
|8.00||203||10.00||254||.595||15.1||Socket: N (arrow) Z over "24637"|
|© Ralph E. Cobb 2011 All Rights Reserved|
|Society of American Bayonet Collectors|