(click to enlarge)
|Pakistan||No. 9 Mk. I||Socket bayonet for use with the .303 caliber Lee-Enfield No. 4 rifle.
This bayonet was made in 1950 at Metal Industries Ltd. in Lahore, prior to establishment of the Pakistan Ordnance Factory in Wah Cantonment. M.I.L. had produced No. I Mk. II and Mk. III bayonets during the Second World War, when Lahore was still under Indian jurisdiction.
The blade profile is more rounded and the edge more crude than the British or P.O.F. No. 9 bayonets. The blade is both pinned and (rather sloppily) brazed to the socket. Prior to discovery of this example in 2016, all known examples were dated 1951.
Discovery of this 1950-dated example demonstrates that the shipment of production equipment from R.O.F. Poole to Pakistan took place earlier than believed.
|7.625||194||9.875||250||.595||15.2||Socket (left): "D P" and "2?" (possibly a viewer's mark) and partial "MIL" trademark
Socket (right): "No 9. M.K. l" over "M.I. LTD" over "1950"
|No. 9 Mk. I||This example was made in 1951 at Metal Industries Ltd.
Only a small quantity of 1951-dated examples have surfaced, so production must have been low before manufacturing ceased and the factory was relocated to Wah Cantonment, away from the border with India.
|8.00||203||10.125||257||.595||15.1||Socket (left): "D P" and "2?" (poss. viewer's mark) and "MIM" logo
Socket (right): "No 9.M.K.l" over "M.I. LTD" over "1951"
|No. 9 Mk. I||This example was made in 1957 by Pakistan Ordinance Factory, Wah Cantonment, Pakistan.
Unlike the M.I.L. example above, the P.O.F. No. 9 is identical to the British-made No. 9 Mk. I. Nicely finished No. 5 scabbard with thick brass throat.
|8.00||203||10.125||257||.595||15.1||Socket: "No.9 MK. I" over "P.O.F. 57", Broad Arrow acceptance mark, and "2000"|
|Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)||FAL Type C||Socket bayonet introduced in the 1960s for the FN–FAL assault rifles that incorporated the 22 mm. NATO-spec flash hider.
This example has the M1963 spring catch. The finish is black paint.
|6.50||171||11.50||292||.890||22.6||Socket: "RA 0594" (in electropencil)|
|Russia||M1808||Socket bayonet for use with the 17.78 mm. (.70 caliber) flintlock Model 1808 infantry musket. Russia patterned the Model 1808 musket after the French Model 1777 Charleville musket. The Model 1808 is often referred to as the “Tula Musket,” as Russia’s Tula Arsenal produced nearly all of them.
Patterned after the French M1777 AN IX socket bayonet (AN IX represents Year 9 in the French Republican Calendar, denoting an improvement introduced in 1800), the Russian Model 1808 bayonet is unusual in having a medial locking ring on an unbridged socket. Russia adopted an improved bayonet in 1826–28 that included a bridge to prevent deformation of the socket. The unbridged socket dates this example to 1808–1825. There was no scabbard produced, the bayonet remaining fixed to the musket at all times.
The Model 1808 was the standard Russian Army infantry musket and bayonet in the Napoleonic Wars, seeing extensive combat during Napoleon’s 1812 Invasion of Russia. In response to the invasion, Tula Arsenal produced 500,000 Model 1808 muskets 1812–15. The Invasion of Russia was the turning point in the Napoleonic Wars that ended Napoleon’s invincibility. The Battle of Borodino outside of Moscow was the deadliest single day of combat during the 12-years of Napoleonic War, resulting in over 70,000 casualties. Napoleon’s retreat from Moscow during the Russian winter destroyed what was left of his Army. While Napoleon would rebuild his army and campaign in central Europe in an attempt to regain power, these attempts failed culminating in his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo and forced exile to St. Helena in 1815.Model 1808 muskets and bayonets also likely accompanied Russian personnel who established Fort Ross, in 1812, along the northern California coast. Fort Ross was the only Russian outpost in what would later become the continental United States.
|17.50||445||20.625||525||.880||22.3||Ricasso: cross mark, "19" and arrow mark|
|M1891||Socket bayonet for use with the 7.62 mm. M1891 Mosin-Nagant rifle. The M1891 was the Russian mainstay during the First World War and the Revolution of 1918.
Although the M1891/30 had superseded the M1891 by the time Russia entered the Second World War, the M1891 was widely used during the Second World War as well.
|16.75||425||19.50||495||.585||14.9||Socket (Right): Russian Proof Commission marks "IIK" and a Cyrillic character inside a circle.
Socket (Left): "IO 42412" (second 4 is inverted).
|M1891/30 Panshin||Socket bayonet for use with the 7.62 mm. Mosin-Nagant M1891 Dragoon rifle. The Panshin is an early variant of the M1891/30 bayonet, intended for use by mounted cavalry.
This example was made 1930–32 at the Tula Arsenal.
Col. P.K. Panshin designed the sight hood to protect the front sight of rifles used by the cavalry. However, the government decided to make the sight hood standard on all M1891/30 rifles instead.
As a result, few hooded bayonets were produced. Most had the hood removed during the Second World War, since the hooded bayonet would not mount to a hooded rifle. Examples with the hood intact are quite scarce today.
|17.00||432||19.875||505||.590||15.0||Elbow (right): proofmark
Elbow (left): star and proofmark
|M1891/30||Socket bayonet for use with the 7.62 mm. M1891/30 Mosin-Nagant rifle. The M1891/30 was Russia's standard service rifle during the Second World War.
The M1891/30 bayonet has a press stud to secure the bayonet in place, rather than the locking ring of the M1891.
This example is typical of crude wartime production, with heavy tool marks.
|M1891/30||This example has been refurbished, as evidenced by the square with diagonal slash refurb mark. Many of the wartime tool marks were cleaned up during the refurbishment process.||17.00||432||19.812||503||.585||14.9||Elbow: "13657" and refurb mark|
|South Africa||No. 9 Mk. I||This example is a British No. 9 Mk. I, made in 1949 at the Royal Ordinance Factory, Poole. It is marked on the socket underside, with the government arrow inside a "U" property mark.
The mark on this example is a less common type, with the arrow pointing downwards, rather than the proper (and more common) upwards arrow. Although observed on various equipment, it is not known how the downward arrow mark came to be used.
|7.75||197||9.875||251||.595||15.1||Various British maker and viewer's marks.|
|South Africa No. 9||The South African blade profile differs significantly from the British No. 9 Mk. I bayonet pictured above.
The bayonets were made by Armaments Corporation of South Africa (ARMSCOR), Lyttelton Engineering Works, in Pretoria. ARMSCOR is the State-owned arms manufacturer in South Africa.
According to Skennerton, the bayonets were made up in the 1960's using blades salvaged from FN-made Uzi submachine gun bayonets (known in So. Africa as the S1 bayonet). However, it has not been conclusively documented whether old S1 blades were actually used or whether the S1 blade was just copied. The blade attaches to the socket with two steel pins.
I was able to acquire an unassembled Uzi bayonet blade from a seller in Tel-Aviv, Israel, to compare with the S.A. No. 9. The Uzi blade is dimensionally identical to the blade of my S.A. Pattern No. 9, as shown in this comparison image. A close study also demonstrates that, if the blade were used for the S.A. No. 9, the forward grip hole would need to be welded and ground flat, then two new holes machined for pinning the Uzi blade to the No. 9 socket. This comparison demonstrates that it is entirely plausible that salvaged Uzi blades could have been used for manufacturing the S.A. No. 9 bayonet.
The British No. 5 Mk. I scabbard would not work with the So. African No. 9 blade. There was no dedicated SA No. 9 scabbard. Instead, scabbards from the M1 (FAL Type A), R1 (FAL Type C), and S1 (Uzi submachine gun) bayonets were used. This example came in a M1 scabbard, which is longer than necessary for the SA No. 9 blade.
|R1 (FAL Type C)||Socket bayonet introduced in the 1960s for the 7.62 mm. NATO caliber R1 (FN-FAL) assault rifle.
The South African "M" inside a "U" property mark represents "Union (of South Africa) Military."
This example has an early FN-produced steel-bodied scabbard, as evidenced by the Belgian proofmark on the throatpiece.
|6.75||171||11.50||292||.890||22.6||Socket: Superimposed "M" "U" and 113704"
Scabbard (throatpiece): ""
|R1 (FAL Type C)||This R1 lacks South African ownership markings, however, has a uniquely South African scabbard.
This example is parkerized, with black paint over the parkerizing on the socket only.
Early R1 bayonets, like the example above, were purchased from FN. South Africa later began producing R1 bayonets and scabbards at the State-owned arms factory, ARMSCOR.
The scabbard is an early pattern manufactured in South Africa. It is unusual in having a shiny plastic body, a transverse leg-tie hole in the ball finial, and a steel frog stud.
South African-made R1 scabbards have the throatpiece oriented so that the socket faces inward when carried. Other countries' FAL Type C scabbards had the throatpiece oriented so that the socket faces outward when carried.
Scabbard (body): "66" in an oval
|R1 (FAL Type C)||This R1 example has the more common R1 scabbard with a nylon body and steel throatpiece shaped to accept either the R1 or S.A. No. 9 bayonet.
Note how this scabbard also has the transverse leg-tie hole in the ball finial.
|6.75||171||11.50||292||.890||22.6||Socket: Superimposed "M" "U" and "222912"|
|Spain||M1871||Socket bayonet for use on the 11.5 mm. M1871 rolling block rifle.
In his book, Socket Bayonets of the Great Powers, Shuey indicates that M1871 bayonets made in the USA had 2.625 in. sockets, where the Spanish-made bayonets had a 3.00 in. socket. This is corroborated by Juan L. Calvó in his 2003 article (in Spanish), 24 Tipos de Cubo en Bayonetas Encontradas en España (24 Types of Socket Bayonets Found in Spain). This example has a 3.00 in. (76 mm.) socket.
Calvo also indicates that the blade width of Spanish-made bayonets was 19.5 mm., where the USA-made bayonets had blades 20.5 mm. wide. The blade width of this example is 0.77 in. (19.5 mm.).
Leather scabbard with a securing tab and brass chape.
Ricasso: punch mark
Blade: looks like letter "O"
Scabbard (chape): "H"
|M1871/93||Socket bayonet for use with the 7 mm. M1893 Mauser rifle. This bayonet is a conversion of the M1871 Remington rolling block socket bayonet.
It is not known when these conversions were done. The most likely period seems to be during the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39. However, this is speculative. The number produced is unclear. Little is known about this uncommon socket bayonet.
The conversion entailed removing the bridge; widening and lengthening the mortise; and adding a wide locking ring; all to accommodate the broad Mauser front sight base. The modifications are apparent in this comparison image.
This bayonet is historically significant as one of only two socket bayonet types ever used with a Mauser rifle. Both were conversions, there never being a socket bayonet actually designed for use with a Mauser.
|Sweden||m/1815-26 Navy||Socket bayonet for the 18.55 mm. (.73 caliber) m/1815–26 Jaeger Musket, as used by the Swedish Navy.
The socket measures 2.50 in. (64 mm.) long, with a straight slot and basal locking ring. The heavy blade measures 1.00 in. (25.4 mm.) wide and has a crude face flute.
This bayonet was originally made as the m/1815–26, with a 27.25 in. (695 mm.) overall length, for use by the Infantry Jaegers. Jaegers were light infantry, whose role was similar to today's special forces. The Jaeger musket was shorter than the infantry musket, so required a longer bayonet for defense against mounted cavalry.
According to Per Holmback, noted authority on Scandinavian bayonets, in 1854 the Swedish Crown ordered 2000–3000 m/1815–26 muskets provided to the Navy. m/1815–26 bayonets were shortened 1855–56, to go with the Navy muskets. This example appears to be one of them.
This example carries the mark of Johan Mellberg, inspection armourer at the Götaland artillery regiment, stationed in Jönköping beginning in 1816.
Elbow (right): "IM"
Elbow (face): 2 squares
Socket: "I I/15"
|m/1860||Socket bayonet for use with the 12.17 mm. m/1860 percussion rifle designed by Fabian Jakob Wrede. This bayonet was also used with the m/1860-64 Hagström breech loading conversion; and, the m/1860–68 and m/1860–64–68 Remington rolling block conversions.
This example was made in 1864 at Husqvarna Vapenfabrik. The m/1860 bayonet's heavy construction and long triangular blade simply dwarfs the U.S. M1873 socket bayonet, as shown in this side-by-side comparison image. The socket length measures 2.562 in. (65 mm.).
Only about 20,000 m/1860 Wrede rifles were manufactured prior to adoption of the m/1864 Hagström needle-fire breech loader. About 4,000 Wrede rifles were altered to the Hagström breechloading system from 1864–66. Many of the m/1860 Wrede rifles and m/1860–64 Wrede-Hagström conversions were subsequently altered to the Remington rolling block system, using "kits" supplied by Remington. These were designated m/1860–68 and m/1860–64–68.
The "AC" ricasso marking identifies Adam Carlsson, who was a Bayonetmaker/Master (Bajonettsmeder/mästare) at Husqvarna in the 1860s. As a Bayonetmaker/Master, he would have supervised the forging, welding, and grinding operations associated with bayonet production. Carlsson was born in 1807. He was a master of pistol production at the Jönköpings Factory in 1833; so had a long career by the time this piece was made.The "PJF" mark on the elbow identifies Peter Johan Fahlgren, who is recorded as a bayonet inspector of m/1860 and m/1867 bayonets at Carl Gustafs Stads Gevarsfaktori (Carl Gustafs City Rifle Factory). It is unclear how his mark came to be on a Husqvarna piece, perhaps, during repair.
|23.25||591||25.812||656||.748||19.2||Ricasso: "1841" over "H" over "1864" over "AC"
Elbow: "GG" and "PJF"
|m/1867||Socket bayonet for use on the 12.17 mm. m/1867 Remington rolling block military rifle.
According to Per Holmback, noted authority on Scandinavian bayonets, M1867’s were manufactured in quite large quantities by both Husqvarna and Carl Gustaf Stad. They also bought 10,000 bayonets from Remington Arms. Co. of Ilion, New York, and this is one of those. The Remington order was delivered on September 2, 1868. The Remington made bayonet is recognized by the steel blade and iron socket. The Swedish-made bayonets were all steel.
The iron socket has a more porous surface than the steel of the elbow and blade. The weld line between the steel and iron is clearly visible in the lower photo.
|m/1867-89||Socket bayonet for use with the 8 mm. M1867–89 rolling block rifle. This bayonet is a conversion of the M1867 socket bayonet used with the 12.17 mm. Remington rolling block rifle.
102,000 M1867–89 conversions were done 1889–1894 at Carl Gustafs Stads Gevarsfaktori (Carl Gustafs City Rifle Factory) in Eskilstuna. Based on the inspection markings, this example was produced during 1893 or 1894.
The conversion entailed removing the old socket and brazing a new socket in place. The join is plainly visible. The M1867–89 socket bayonet is historically significant as the only socket bayonet to incorporate a coil-spring press stud. The socket measures 1.875 in. (48 mm.) long.
The unit marking "27 RB No. 275" is an abbreviation for: Beväringsvapen Nummer 275, 27th Regementet (Weapon No. 275, 27th Infantry Regiment).
The inspectors whose initials appear on this example are: Wilhelm Pontus Bruno, an inspection officer with Carl Gustaf Stad from 12/31/1892 – 1/19/1896; and, Gustaf Emil Miller, who worked at Carl Gustaf Stad from 6/20/1891 – ca. 1920.
|19.375||492||21.25||540||.615||15.6||Socket: "27 RB" over "No. 275"
Elbow (left): "7574"
Elbow (right): "PB" Crown-C "GM"
|© Ralph E. Cobb 2011 All Rights Reserved|
|Society of American Bayonet Collectors|