(click to enlarge)
|USA||Early U.S. Fencing Bayonet||Early U.S. Fencing Bayonet used with the .69 caliber U.S. M1840 flintlock and M1842 percussion muskets.
This example, based on the M1835 socket bayonet, may be the first of its type known to exist. Fencing bayonets based on the M1816 bayonet (Type I) and the M1855 bayonet (Type II) have been documented, but not a fencing bayonet based on the M1835.
American use of fencing bayonets for training began before the U.S. Civil War. The original blade would be cut away, to be replaced with a receptacle that held a flexible whalebone blade with a leather-covered cork or rubber ball at the end. Later fencing bayonets, like the U.S. M1912, had flexible spring steel blades covered in russet-colored leather.
Little is known about when and where fencing bayonets were produced; and how many were made. Schmidt documented that Watervliet Arsenal in New York produced 1,500 of the M1816-based Type I fencing bayonets in 1852–53.The workmanship on this example is quite good, suggesting that it was likely altered by one of the government arsenals. The original “U.S.” ricasso mark and face flute are still partially visible after machining the blade stub to accept the fencing blade receptacle.
|M1855 Modified||M1855 socket bayonet modified by cutting off the rear portion of the socket.
Originally made 1855–1865 at the Springfield Armory, Springfield, MA, for use with the .58 caliber Springfield rifle-musket.
Modified for use on a cadet musket or possibly as a movie prop, by shortening the socket length to 1.875 in. (48 mm.). Mounts perfectly to my .577 Caliber Enfield Rifle-Musket.
Similar examples turn up periodically, so were modified in quantity. No way to know who altered them (Bannerman, one of the movie houses, or ?).
|18.25||464||20.125||511||.770||19.6||Ricasso: "US" over "S"|
|Enfield Rifle-Musket||Socket bayonet for use with the .577 Caliber Enfield Rifle-Musket (also referred to in the USA as the "3-Band Enfield").
This example has no British government markings, indicating that it was likely imported to the USA during the American Civil War. The Enfield was the second most common rifle used in the American Civil War, with nearly 1 million imported and used by both sides.
According to British socket bayonet authority Graham Priest, the “J•R” marking indicates that the bayonet was likely made in Liege, Belgium. The other ricasso marking may be an incomplete CHAVASSE. There was a retailer, Horace Chavasse & Co., at Alma street, Aston Newton (near Birmingham, England) 1860–1868. Chavasse has been documented as also having marked P1856 sword bayonets.
|17.25||438||20.25||514||.787||20.0||Ricasso: "P (dot) B" and “CHAVAS”
Socket (rear edge): 2 punch marks and 7 notches
|M1840/42 Musket Conversion||Socket bayonet for use with the .69 caliber U.S. M1840 muskets converted to the percussion system and the M1842 percussion musket. The M1842 was the first U.S. military percussion musket and the last U.S. infantry musket to be made as a smoothbore.
A clone of the M1835 socket bayonet, made long after M1835 production had ceased. The M1835 bayonet was made from 1839–1855 at the US Armories at Springfield, Illinois, and Harpers Ferry, Virginia. This example is identical to the M1835, except for its tapered blade shoulders. The M1835 had scalloped blade shoulders, like the Enfield bayonet pictured above. Tapered blade shoulders were not introduced until 1855.
Perhaps this was made 1856–59 when existing M1842 muskets were rifled at the national armories; or early in the Civil War, when the M1842 Rifled-Muskets were pressed into service.
|M1863 Sharps||Socket bayonet for use on the Sharps 1863 "New Model" military breech loading rifle. This is a rarity, by any definition, with only a handful of known examples surviving.
Approximately 10,600 Sharps 1863 and 1865 rifles were delivered to the U.S. Government during the Civil War. There were two different socket bayonets produced for these rifles: a M1855 style socket bayonet made by Collins & Co., and what is known as the "Drake Pattern" socket bayonet, of which this is an example.
|Winchester M1866||Socket bayonet for use with the .44 caliber rimfire M1866 Winchester lever-action infantry musket.
The M1866 socket bayonet is distinctive by its small size and exceptionally brief elbow. Note the high bridge required to clear the Winchester's tall front sight.
Production of the M1866 infantry musket began in 1869. The number produced by the Winchester Repeating Arms Co. of New Haven, CT is unknown, because M1866 production records are incomplete.
The M1866 infantry musket was used by some State Militias and was produced for foreign sales. M1866 muskets produced for Turkey mounted a sword bayonet, rather than this socket. The Winchester was not adopted by the U.S. military, due to the insufficient long-range performance of the .44 caliber cartridge and the Ordnance Department's disdain for the repeating rifle.
The socket length is 2.625 in. (67 mm.) and the muzzle length is 1.125 in. (29 mm.).
|Peabody M1867||Socket bayonet for use with the Model 1867 Peabody cartridge rifle.
This uncommon and nondescript socket bayonet is identified primarily by its dimensions and the rather long ricasso, compared to regulation U.S. bayonets. The socket length is 2.625 in. (67 mm.).
Approximately 55,000 Peabody M1867 rifles were produced 1867–71 by the Providence Tool Co. of Providence, Rhode Island, based on a patent by inventor Henry O. Peabody.
The vast majority were for foreign contracts, chambered in .43 Spanish caliber (Canada, France, Mexico, Romania, and Spain). Small quantities of U.S. State Militia Rifles were also produced: Connecticut (.45–70) and Massachusetts (.433 caliber). Although the Peabody fared exceptionally well in the breechloading rifle trials of 1865, the hoped-for large U.S. Government contract never materialized.
|Remington M1867||Socket bayonet for use on Remington No. 1 Rolling Block rifles produced for export.
Closely patterned on the Swedish M1867 socket bayonet, 10,000 of which were made by Remington. Completely unmarked, this example differs from the Swedish contract bayonet in having been produced in the white (Swedish bayonets were blued) and in having a steel socket (Swedish M1867s made by Remington had an iron socket). The socket length is 2.625 in. (67 mm.).
One of the challenges with Remington Rolling Block bayonets is that there were so many customers/production contracts (and everybody wanted something different). It is not clear which rolling block rifle contract this bayonet was produced for, as it does not exactly match any of the examples listed in Janzen's book on Remington bayonets.
|M1873||Socket bayonet for use on the .45–70 Caliber U.S. Rifle M1873 (Trapdoor Springfield).
The beautiful high-polish blue finish illustrates the painstaking workmanship exhibited on these rifles and bayonets.
Leather scabbard hanger is for a 1.50 in. (38 mm.) wide equipment belt and was made at Watervliet Arsenal, Watervliet, NY.
The scabbard is attached to the leather hanger by two small tabs, one of which is riveted to the leather. According to Reilly, this is indicative that this scabbard was made prior to the riveted tab being phased out in the early 1880s.
Scabbard Hanger: "Watervliet Arsenal" and "U.S." on brass rosette
Scabbard (Leather Throat): Feint inspector name, believed to be "A.R. Smith"
|M1873 Cadet||Socket bayonet for use on the .45–70 Caliber U.S. Cadet Rifle M1873 (Trapdoor Springfield). This bayonet is a scaled-down version of the issue M1873 socket bayonet.
The cadet rifle was shorter than the standard M1873 infantry rifle, since its primary use was for drilling. However, the cadet rifle was made to the same standards as it's full-sized cousin and was every bit as accurate and lethal.
|Winchester M1873||Socket bayonet for use with the .44 caliber M1873 Winchester lever-action infantry musket.
The bayonet is unusual in that the elbow is only 3/4 in. long, about half the length of a U.S. M1873 Springfield bayonet above. It is also unusual for the time period, in having the mortise cut so that the bayonet hangs beneath the rifle barrel. Notice the high bridge to clear the Winchester's tall front sight. Most socket bayonets don't have a very sharp point, but the point on this one is like a needle.
The M1873 was the first Winchester rifle to use a centerfire cartridge. Approximately 35,000 M1873 infantry muskets were produced by the Winchester Repeating Arms Co. of New Haven, CT, from 1874–1919. Infantry muskets accounted for roughly five percent of M1873 production.
The M1873 infantry musket was produced mostly for foreign sales. It had some popularity in South America, going to Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. They also went to Mexico, France, and Turkey. The Winchester was not adopted by the U.S. military, due to the insufficient long-range performance of the .44 caliber cartridge and the Ordnance Department's disdain for the repeating rifle.
The socket length is 3.00 in. (76 mm.) and the muzzle length is 1.25 in. (32 mm.).
|Winchester-Hotchkiss||Socket bayonet for use with the .45–70 caliber Winchester-Hotchkiss rifle. This bayonet is also believed used with the military musket variant of the Winchester M1876 and M1886 lever-action rifles (very few made).
The Winchester-Hotchkiss bayonet is distinguished from the M1873 by its slightly longer blade and smaller socket diameter (smaller than either the M1867 Peabody or M1873). The socket length is 3.00 in. (76 mm.). The way in which the elbow was formed created a slight "pinch" at the inside radius, where the ricasso terminates; and a slightly bulbous "swell" on the outside radius, where the blade flutes terminate at the elbow.
The Winchester-Hotchkiss was a bolt-action repeating rifle produced by Winchester 1879–1899 and at Springfield Armory 1879–81. During this period, 84,555 rifles of all variants were produced. 2,986 rifles were manufactured at Springfield Armory: 513 for the Army (designated M1878) and 2,473 for the Navy (designated M1879). The U.S. Government purchased an unknown quantity of additional rifles of a third type produced by Winchester (designated M1883).
|M1891 Remington||Socket bayonet for use with the 7.62 mm. M1891 Mosin-Nagant rifle. This example was produced in the USA by the Remington Arms Co., in Bridgeport, Connecticut, for the Imperial Russian Government.
In 1915, Russia contracted with Remington and with the New England Westinghouse Co. to produce the 7.62 mm. M1891 Mosin-Nagant rifle and the accompanying bayonets. When the Communist Revolution of 1917 overthrew the government of Czar Nicholas II, the contract was cancelled, leaving Remington and N.E. Westinghouse holding a large quantity of M1891 rifles and bayonets; with factories tooled-up to produce Russian arms. The U.S. Government purchased all of the rifles and bayonets on hand, plus any more they could produce while thier factories were converted to produce Browning machine guns.
The tiny circle-R and serial number, and the absence of any Russian markings, identifies this example as having been produced by Remington. Some of the U.S.-purchase bayonets were marked with the Ordnance Dept. "Shell and Flame" device, however, many were not. As this example illustrates, the fit and finish of the Remington bayonet is better than on Russian-produced M1891 bayonets.
|17.00||432||19.75||502||.585||14.9||Socket: "571004" and circle "R"|
|Daisy #40||Socket bayonet for use with the Daisy #40 military style BB gun. The bayonet is made of stamped blued steel, with a functional locking ring and small rubber tip. No scabbard was produced.
The socket length is 1.375 in. (35 mm.).
Produced by the Daisy manufacturing Company Inc. of Plymouth, Michigan, approximately 150,000 #40 rifles and bayonets were made from 1916–1934.
The #40 is said to be one of the most sought after items by today’s collectors of Daisy BB guns. Examples of the bayonet are far less common than rifles, with many having been lost (or confiscated and disposed of by concerned parents).
|Johnson Model of 1941||Triangular bayonet for the caliber .30-06 Johnson Model of 1941 self-loading rifle.
The Model of 1941 was an innovative rifle design developed by U.S.M.C. Capt. Melvin M. Johnson as an alternative to the M1 Garand. The rifle's recoil-operated action required a lightweight bayonet, which accounts for the bayonet's skeletal appearance.
Essentially, a socket bayonet without a socket, this bayonet mounts to the rifle by means of an ingenious flat spring. The scabbard is leather with a brass thorn to secure the hilt strap.
A total of approximately 30,000 Johnson Model of 1941 rifles are believed to have been produced. The Model of 1941 rifle and bayonet were used in small numbers by U.S. Marines, the Netherlands, and Chile. The CIA armed some of the Cuban-Exile guerilla forces with Johnson rifles during the ill-fated Bay of Pigs invasion.
Serial numbering of the muzzle ring is believed to have been done by the Netherlands, indicating that this example likely saw service in the Far East with Dutch Naval Forces or the Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger or KNIL (Royal Netherlands East Indies Army).A graduate of Harvard Law School, Johnson was assigned as an observer of the Army trials of the Garand and Peterson rifles. During his time at Springfield Armory, he developed his own designs for the Model of 1941 self-loading rifle and Model of 1941 light machine gun. The designs were considered especially innovative. The Johnson Model of 1941 rifle’s 8-lugged rotating bolt design was adapted by designer Eugene Stoner for his revolutionary Armalite AR-10 assault rifle and is still used today in the M16 assault rifle.
|7.75||197||11.75||298||.570||14.5||Muzzle Ring: "242"|
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|Society of American Bayonet Collectors|