(click to enlarge)
|Switzerland||M1851 Federal Rifle||Triangular bayonet for use with the 10.4 mm. M1851 Federal Rifle.
Essentially, a socket bayonet without a socket, this bayonet mounts to the rifle by means of a dovetailed mortise. This example has a spring catch. Variations with a wing screw or knurled locking screw are also encountered. The blade and elbow were blued. The bluing on this example is surprisingly intact, but has turned to patina.
The Swiss Federal Rifle was a percussion muzzle loading sharpshooter's rifle (Stutzer). These were precision rifles with heavy round barrels, adjustable long-range sights, and double set triggers. Its 10.4 mm. projectile was considered to have the finest ballistics of any contemporary muzzle loading rifle.
|20.50||521||24.25||616||n/a||Wedge (underside): "218"|
|M1863||Socket bayonet for use with the muzzle loading 10.4 mm. M1863 Infanteriegewehr (infantry rifle); and the 10.4 mm. rimfire M1863/67 Milbank-Amsler conversion; M1867 Peabody; and, M1869 Vetterli rifles. This bayonet could also be used with the 10.4 mm. Vetterli M1871 Infantry and M1871 Stutzer (sharpshooter) repeating rifles.
15,000 Peabody rifles were purchased in 1867 from the Providence Tool Co. of Providence, Rhode Island, based on a design patented by inventor Henry O. Peabody. These were shipped with the triangular M1867 Peabody bayonet. Both the M1863/67 Milbank-Amsler conversion and M1867 Peabody rifles were an interim measure to acquire breechloading cartridge rifles while completing development of the Vetterli repeating rifle.
This bayonet was used from 1863 to 1878, when the Vetterli rifle was updated to use a sword bayonet. During this period, there were two socket bayonet variants, the M1863 and M1871, which are difficult to distinguish without having known examples against which to compare. Both types were used interchangeably.
The distinguishing factor is that the M1863 is of slightly heavier construction than the M1871. The difference is readily apparent in this comparison image. Older bayonet reference books are not consistent as to which variant was which. A contemporary Swiss researcher indicates that the M1863 is the heavier version, weighing around 350 grams; and the M1871 is the lighter version, weighing closer to 300 grams. I would tend to defer to his determination, since he resides in Switzerland and more than 20 years have passed since publishing of the older references.
This example weighs in at 367 grams, so is the M1863 variant. Based on the serial numbers, this example could have been used with either a M1863 muzzle loader, M1863/67 Milbank-Amsler, or M1869 Vetterli. According to Vetterli production records, serial numbers 1100 and 2744 correspond to M1869 infantry rifles made by Valentin Sauerbrey of Basel, in 1870 and 1871, respectively.
Elbow (right): Swiss cross over "V"
Elbow (left): "2744"
Locking Ring: "7" and "44"
Locking Ring Screw: "7" and "44"
|M1871||Socket bayonet for use with the Swiss 10.4 mm. Vetterli M1871 Infantry and M1871 Stutzer (sharpshooter) repeating rifles. This bayonet could also be used with the M1863/67 Milbank-Amsler conversion; M1867 Peabody; and, M1869 Vetterli rifles.
This example weighs in at 312 grams, so is the M1871 variant. According to Vetterli production records, serial number 73,556 corresponds to a M1869/71 infantry rifle made by S.I.G. Neuhausen in 1872. Serial number 1034 corresponds to a M1871 Stutzer rifle made at Eidgenössische Montier-Werstätte, Bern (Swiss Federal Installation, Bern) in 1872.
|19.50||495||22.25||565||.730||18.5||Socket: "1034" and "73556"
Socket (rear of bridge): "7" and "3"
Elbow (right): Swiss cross over "S"
Elbow (left): script "7"
Locking Ring: "73"
Locking Ring Screw: "79"
Click on the image to view information and additional images under France.
|Socket bayonet designed in Switzerland and produced 1978–88 by MANURHIN (Manufacture de Machines du Haut Rhin), in France, for use on the Schweizerische Industrie-Gesellschaft (S.I.G.) 530, 540, and 542 assault rifles.||7.00||178||11.00||280||.675||17.1||None.|
|Turkey||M1874 Socket||Socket bayonet for use on the 11.4 mm. (.45 caliber) M1874 Peabody-Martini rifle, produced in the U.S. for the Turkish government.
The socket is blued and the blade in the white. The socket is cut so that the bayonet hangs below the rifle's barrel. The socket length is 3.125 in. (79 mm.).
These rifles and bayonets were made in the 1870s by the Providence Tool Company in Providence, Rhode Island, based on a design patented by inventor Henry O. Peabody. According to research by Edward A. Hull, published in the Society of American Bayonet Collectors (SABC) Journal, Volume 2, Spring 1989, the initial order of rifles were supplied with this socket bayonet. Upwards of 400,000 bayonets were manufactured and delivered to Turkey. When the Providence Tool Co. ceased Peabody-Martini rifle production in 1879, their bayonet manufacture also ceased.
|No. 4 Mk. II||Spike bayonet for use with the .303 caliber Lee-Enfield No. 4 rifle.
Little is known about these British No. 4 spike bayonets used by Turkey. Most examples observed are of USA or Canadian manufacture. This example was made in the USA by the Savage Stevens Co. of Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts.
A quantity of No. 4 rifles were imported to the USA from Turkey in the mid-2000s. These rifles can often be identified by the stacking hook welded to the upper band.
This example came in the modified Turkish belt frog below. The scabbard is an early No. 4 Mk. I with the blued steel throatpiece.
|8.00||203||10.00||254||.595||15.1||Socket: "No 4 Mk II" over "S" and "B 75" over "1455"
Spring Plunger" "S"
Scabbard (throatpiece): "No. 4 Mk. I"
|Uruguay||M1871 Mauser||Socket bayonet for use with the 11 mm. M1871 Mauser rifle. This bayonet is a conversion of the British Pattern 1853 Enfield socket bayonet.
Designated by Uruguay, Bayoneta de Cubo para los rifles Mauser Mod. 1870 (Socket Bayonet for Mauser Model 1870 Rifles), little is known about this uncommon socket bayonet. It was used by both Uruguay and Japan with M1871 Mauser rifles procured from Steyr in the 1880s. The bayonet conversion work is believed to have been done by one of the Liege, Belgium arms producers. The British cancellation mark on the ricasso clearly shows that this example had prior service. Although the socket bayonet lacks the formidable appearance of the German M1871 sword bayonet, it would have been a much less costly alternative.
The conversion entailed replacing the Enfield socket with a much shorter 2.125 in. (54 mm.) socket having a wide mortise and thin bridge. The locking ring is unique in that it is one solid piece, with no screw, simply pressed around the socket. The modifications are apparent in this comparison image.
The scabbard has a leather throat and body, with a steel ball finial. This example was issued into Belgian Army service in 1890, as indicated by the markings. The first number on the scabbard body is a regimental roll number and the second the year of issue.
This scabbard was used domestically by the Belgians with the M1867 Albini-Braendlin socket bayonet, as well as for export on bayonets such as this.
This bayonet is historically significant as one of only two socket bayonet types ever used with a Mauser rifle. Both were conversions, there never being a socket bayonet actually designed for use with a Mauser.
|17.75||451||19.875||505||.695||17.7||Ricasso: partial former marking overstamped with the British "sold from service" cancellation mark and "S"
Scabbard (body): "186" and "1890"
Scabbard (finial): "P" inside a square
|USA||Early Colonial Socket Bayonet||Socket bayonet for a .75–.80 caliber flintlock musket.
2.562 in. (65 mm.) socket with seam under the classic shank attachment shield. L-mortise cut for a bottom bayonet mounting stud. Very heavy for its size, suggesting that it is likely made of iron.
It is very difficult to date early Colonial Period bayonets. They were made in small numbers by local blacksmiths, without benefit of gauges and other production tooling common to European manufacture. As a result, no two are alike.
Colonial Militias began forming in the 1730s. Because early militias focused primarily on defending settlements against Indian attack, the production and procurement of bayonets was of secondary concern. The more established militias, such as in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, are documented as having bayonets by the late-1750s. However, by 1775, when the Revolutionary War began in earnest, only about half of Massachusetts Bay Colony muskets were equipped with bayonets.
The forward-sweeping shank, flattened triangular blade profile, and applied socket construction point to the French & Indian War or early Revolution Period (1755–1775). The example below is more typical of bayonets produced during the Revolutionary War Period, when bayonets tended to copy British or French designs.
The blade measures 0.875 in. (22 mm.) wide. The muzzle length is 1.0625 in. (27 mm.).
|Colonial Socket Bayonet||Socket bayonet for use with a .75 caliber flintlock musket.
Crude blacksmith-made copy of a British Early Land Pattern Brown Bess socket bayonet. The mortise is cut for a bottom bayonet mounting stud.
This example dates from 1770–1780 and is typical of non-regulation bayonets made during the Revolutionary War.
The socket measures 3.625 in. (92 mm.) long. The blade measures 1.165 in. (30 mm.) wide. The muzzle length is 1.11 in. (28 mm.).
|Socket bayonet for use with the .69 caliber Springfield Charleville musket. A clone of the French M1763 musket, the Charleville was the first musket type produced at Springfield Armory, following its founding in 1795.
Prior to creation of the Ordnance Dept., in 1812, military small arms manufacturing lacked the organization and standardization that is generally associated with U.S. arms. Nomenclature around bayonets produced 1795–1815 is somewhat uncertain, due to lack of standardization and almost continual introduction of design changes.
Schmidt identifies this bayonet as the Springfield Pattern 1807, which was produced from 1807–09. Earlier references may refer to this bayonet as the M1808.
The Pattern 1807 was the first U.S. socket bayonet to have a bridge. The bridge strengthened the rear of the socket against the tendency to spread apart and cause the bayonet to dismount. As can be seen in the third picture at left, the bridge was almost paper thin. Subsequent bayonets, such as the M1816 below, had a more substantial bridge.
In addition, the Pattern 1807 bayonet was the first U.S. bayonet to feature a face flute. As seen in the picture at left, the face flute was only about 5 in. (127 mm.) long and was very narrow.
This example was made in 1809, owing to the diameter of the neck. In 1809, the neck diameter was increased from 0.360 in.(9.1 mm.) to 0.435–0.450 in. (11.0-11.4 mm.). This example's neck measures .460 in. (11.7 mm.). In 1810, Springfield introduced a longer socket (3.40 in. (86 mm.) vs. 2.70 in. (69 mm.) on this example).
The only marking is a reference number that would also have been stamped on the rifle's bayonet stud. 1809 was prior to the introduction of interchangeable parts, so each musket was produced as a "stand-of-arms," with its own bayonet.
|Socket bayonet for use with the .69 caliber U.S. M1816 flintlock musket.
The M1816 had a very long production period, from 1818–1840. Early examples were left in the white, while later examples were browned. Both Springfield and Harper's Ferry Armories produced the M1816.
The M1816 introduced the distinctive T-mortise. The point was also unique, resembling the prow of a boat. No other U.S. bayonet type was pointed this way. There is an abbreviated face flute, extending about 9 in. (230 mm.) back of the point. The socket length is 3.00 in. (76 mm.).
This example was made at the Springfield Armory, likely between 1827–1831, by bayonet forger Timothy Allen (based on period records, the initials accompanying the arsenal mark correspond those of the bayonet forger). Beginning in 1827, the neck diameter was increased from 0.435–0.460 in. (11.0–11.7 mm.) to 0.460–0.500 in. (11.7-12.7 mm.). This example's neck measures .472 in. (12.0 mm.). Beginning in 1832, inspectors placed their initials on the neck, rather than using a punch mark on the blade (each inspector put the punch mark in a different location). This example has the punch mark after the "US" arsenal mark.
I obtained this example from an older gentleman, who purchased it in the early 1960s from the famous Francis Bannerman Sons military surplus dealer of New York.
|16.25||413||19.25||489||.845||21.5||Ricasso: "US." over "TA"|
|M1819||Socket bayonet for use with the .52 caliber M1819 breech loading rifle designed and patented by Captain John H. Hall.
The unique offset bridge is diagnostic of the M1819 bayonet, required due to the rifle’s sights being offset to the left in order to facilitate operation of the breech block. This example has rounded blade shoulders, rather than the more commonly-encountered scalloped shoulders. Face flute measures 7.50 in. (191 mm.). Socket length is 2.937 (75 mm.); Muzzle length is 1.10 in. (28 mm.).
A total of 29,593 M1819 (flintlock) and M1841 (percussion) Hall’s Patent breech loading rifles were produced between 1823–1842. 19,680 at Harper’s Ferry Arsenal and 5,700 by Connecticut contractor, Simeon North. The M1819 was the first breech loading military rifle produced in quantity and was the first rifled U.S. military arm to mount a bayonet.
The M1819 rifle was beautifully engineered and worked reasonably well. It was reliable and produced a vastly higher rate of fire than any musket of the period, all with the superior accuracy of a rifle. That said, troops found firing the M1819 unpleasant due to gas leakage around the breechblock. Although detrimental in many respects, gas leakage served to rid the action of powder fouling, enabling 20 or 30 shots before cleaning vs. 3 or 4 shots for a muzzle loading rifle. However, the firer received the escaping gas in the face and downward toward their trigger hand, something most could simply not get used to. As a consequence, M1819 rifles mostly sat in storage. The lock, breechblock, and trigger were a single, easily-removable assembly that could be loaded and fired (kind of a makeshift pocket pistol).
The M1819 rifle was the first truly assembly-line military rifle with fully-interchangeable parts. The production line that Hall created at Harpers Ferry was mechanized to an unprecedented level, which enabled use of unskilled labor and resulted in parts exhibiting previously unachievable levels of precision and uniformity. Hall’s innovative machines and processes fathered the American System of Manufacturing. The Hall breech loading mechanism paved the way for development of the Spencer, Sharps, and other successful breech loading rifles and carbines of the U.S. Civil War.
|15.812||402||18.75||476||.785||19.9||Ricasso: single punch mark|
|© Ralph E. Cobb 2011 All Rights Reserved|
|Society of American Bayonet Collectors|